This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Extracting Dna From The Bacterium Escherichia Coli

1264 words - 6 pages

Deoxyribonucleic acid is contained in all cells. The structure of DNA makes gene transmission
possible. Since genes are segments of DNA, DNA must be able to make exact copies of itself to enable the
next generation of cells to receive the same genes. The DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder. Each
"side" is a chain of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose sugar molecules. The "steps" are formed by
bonded pairs of purine-pyrimidine bases. DNA contains four such bases the purines adenine (A) and guanine
(G) and the pyrimidines cytosine (C) and thymine (T).
The RNA molecule, markedly similar to DNA, usually consists of a single chain. The RNA chain
contains ribose sugars instead ...view middle of the document...

The code ensures that each protein is built from
the proper sequence of amino acids.
Genes transmit their protein-building instructions by transcribing a special type of RNA called
messenger RNA (mRNA). This leaves the cell nucleus and moves to structures in the cytoplasm called
ribosomes, where protein synthesis takes place.
Cell biologists believe that DNA also builds a type of RNA called transfer RNA, which floats
freely through the cell cytoplasm. Each tRNA molecule links with a specific amino acid. When needed for
protein synthesis, the amino acids are borne by tRNA to a ribosome.


The Genetic Code

Experimental evidence indicates that the genetic code is a "triplet" code; that is, each series
of three nucleotides along the DNA molecule orders where a particular amino acid should be placed in a
growing protein molecule. Three-nucleotide units on an mRNA strand for example UUU, UUG, and GUU are
called codons. The codons, transcribed from DNA, are strung out in a sequence to form mRNA.
According to the triplet theory, tRNA contains anticodons, nucleotide triplets that pair their
bases with mRNA codons. Thus, AAA is the anticodon for UUU. When a codon specifies a particular amino
acid during protein synthesis, the tRNA molecule with the anticodon delivers the needed amino acid to the
bonding site on the ribosome.
The genetic code consists of 64 codons. However, since these codons order only some 20 amino
acids, most, if not all, of the amino acids can be ordered by more than one of them. For example, the
mRNA codons UGU and UGC both order cysteine. Because mRNA is a reverse copy of DNA the genetic code for
cysteine is ACA or ACG. Some codons may act only to signal a halt to protein synthesis. Since code
transmission from DNA to mRNA is extremely precise, any error in the code affects protein synthesis. If
the error is serious enough, it eventually affects some body trait or feature. In this study, DNA was
extracted from the bacterium Escherichia coli and then some of its physical properties were studied.

Methods & Materials

The DNA extraction was completed in one session of study. First, 5.0 ml. of E.coli suspension
medium was placed in a measuring cup and added to the tube of freeze-dried E.coli. The tube was then
capped very tightly and shook gently until...

Other Papers Like Extracting Dna from the Bacterium Escherichia Coli

Diagnosis Of An Infected Patient Essay

1074 words - 5 pages of heat (Noonan). Escherichia is a genus of aerobic gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae that form acid and gas on many carbohydrates, such as dextrose and lactose, but not acetone, which include occasional pathogenic forms, including some strains of E. coli which are normally present in the human intestine as well as other forms which typically occur in soil and water (Webster). Escherichia coli is a gram

Toxin Paper

1451 words - 6 pages cook. How simple-minded; in result of an undercooked burger, a life was taken. Escherichia coli (E. Coli) is a bacterium that commonly lives in the intestines of people and animals. There are many strains of E. Coli. Most of the E. Coli are normal inhabitants of the small intestine and colon and are non-pathogenic, meaning they do not cause disease in the intestines. Nevertheless, these non-pathogenic E. Coli can cause disease

Diagnosis Of An Infected Patient

872 words - 4 pages , making them a gram-positive bacteria. The fact that Bacillus produce endospores makes them resistant to heat, cold, radiation, desiccation, and disinfectants.[Turnbull, P] This genera of bacterium are generally found in soil and water. The largest of this species can reach two micrometers across and seven micrometers long. Most strains of Bacillus are not pathogenic but many infect humans unintentionally. [Bacillus. (2015)] Escherichia is a gram

Morphological Unknown

587 words - 3 pages decontamination, hospital surveillance of antibiotic resistance, controlled use of antibiotics and aseptic insertion of catheters and implanted devices will reduce transmission of the organism. As part of the Enterobacteriaceae family, E. aerogenes is related to Escherichia coli and salmonella. E. aerogenes is smaller than many of its microbial cousins, but its occurrence in hospitals and resistance to antibiotics have made it of particular importance. In sum, E. aerogenes continues to evolve new strains, thus it will continue to pose challenges to the biomedical community.

Microbiology

935 words - 4 pages Diagnosis of an Infected Patient: Microbiology Paper Bio 212 18 January 2015 Diagnosis of an Infected Patient After collecting a sputum sample from a patient that is suspected or may be infected with a bacterium from one of the following genera: Escherichia, Mycoplasma or Bacillus; Each bacteria listed should be isolated by utilizing each of the various staining techniques. The best staining techniques to use is the Gram stain or the

Dna Fingerprinting

715 words - 3 pages Analysis Restriction enzymes - Occur naturally in bacteria - Hundreds are purified and available commercially - Named for bacterial genus, species, strain, and type - Recognize specific base sequences in DNA - Cut DNA at those recognition sites Example: EcoRI Genus: Escherichia Species: coli Strain: R RE Recognition Site • Enzymes recognize specific 4-8 bp sequences EcoRI 5’…GAATTC…3’ 3’…CTTAAG…5’ • Recognition sites

Diagnosing An Microorganisms Using Stains

693 words - 3 pages When I receive a sputum sample from a patient, my first step that I would take would be to prepare the specimen to be viewed under a microscope. Knowing that it would be Bacillus, Escherichia or Mycoplama, I would start ruling them out one by one. I would start with Bacillus. They are rod shaped bacterium which form endospores. Their movement is propelled by flagella. Bacilli are gram positive, but because if forms endospores, I would do the

Oil and Gas 2

1270 words - 6 pages and 4 countries that is developing a practical research agenda[11] specifically aimed at developing positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and a diamondoid nanofactory that would have the capability of building diamondoid medical nanorobots. [edit] Bacteria based This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the bacterium Escherichia coli.[12] Hence, the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. The use of

Substitution of Asp-309 by Asn in the Arg-Asp-Pro (Rdp) Motif of Acetobacter Diazotrophicus Levansucrase Affects Sucrose Hydrolysis, but Not Enzyme Specificity

2783 words - 12 pages transform E. coli NM522 (mutS) cells. Plasmids from transformants were mass-purified, digested with NcoI and used to transform E. coli MC 1061. Mutants were screened by EcoRV digestion, and the D309N substitution was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The plasmid carrying the mutated lsdA gene was named pALS92. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Restriction endonucleases and T4 DNA ligase were purchased from New England Biolabs, and radiochemicals were from

Wound Healing Activity of Tawatawa

3577 words - 15 pages crude extract (100%) not diluted in distilled water was also tested for further comparison. Test microorganisms: Aseptic technique was done during the entire duration of the study to avoid contaminations. The strains of test organism of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were obtained from University of the Philippines-Los Baños Biotechnology Laboratory. They were re-isolated and pure cultures were

Variety of Mysterious Microorganisms

2527 words - 11 pages the necessary materials needed to distinguish a species from a mixed culture. Test after test, the students embarked upon a journey to uncover the unknown. For one student, after a compilation of data, Escherichia blattae was uncovered to be the mysterious organism. The following tests were the most conclusive that provided essential information for identifying the organism. Gram-Stain

Related Essays

Cloning And Expression Of Α Amylase Gene From Bacillus Subtilis In Pichia Pastoris And Escherichia Coli

1774 words - 8 pages Cloning and expression of α-Amylase gene from Bacillus subtilis in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli. Introduction Enzyme is a type of catalyst that present in living organisms used for many biotechnological functions in various industrial processing. It has a special characteristic that allows the chemical reaction to speed up without being altered, thus significantly improve the industrial productivity (Roy et al. 2012). Among various

The Infectious Patient Essay

925 words - 4 pages The infectious patient If you have an infection how do you know from what bacteria is came from. I will discuss the genera Bacillus, Escherichia and Mycoplasma. They have many structural differences that can distinguish them. There are also staining processes that can identify each. Let’s get started. The genera Bacillus is a gram positive rod shaped bacterium. When viewed under a microscope Bacillus can be seen as a single organism

Micro Essay 1

583 words - 3 pages You are given a sputum sample from a patient that may be infected with a bacterium from one of the following genera: Bacillus, Escherichia, or Mycoplasma.  In a Microsoft Word document, 1. Describe the important anatomical differences among these three genera (i.e., those unique features that could be used to differentiate among them such as their shape, size, unique things found in each one, etc.).   Bacillus is defined as any of a group

Temperature: Effects On Growth Essay

688 words - 3 pages , ribosomes, and DNA. Those three cellular components are going to play a key role in the experiment. I believe that the Escherichia coli will have the greatest amount of growth out of the three bacteria we will be using for this experiment. Materials that will be needed are baskets that will be at different temperatures (5, 25, 38, 42, 55 degrees), 6 test tubes of nutrient broth, wire loop, spectrophotometer, cuvettes, sterile nutrient broth and