All economic problems arise from scarcity because human wants are unlimited but resources are limited. Economics the science of choice, it is talking about how individuals and societies make a choice from the scarcity. All economic choices can be summarized in three questions: What gets produced? How is it produced? Who gets what is produces? Economists define their work in micro and macro perspective. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics are the two major branches of economics.
What is Microeconomics?
Microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in markets. So all these problems belong to microeconomics: how the ...view middle of the document...
The major concerns of macroeconomics are the study of economy-wide phenomena including inflation, unemployment, and economic growth. If aggregate output decreases, which means the total quantity of goods and services produced less and the standard of living also declines. Inflation is an increase level in the overall price. Government doesn’t want to see hyperinflations when means price level increases rapidly in a short period. Unemployment rate is an indicator of the economy’s health and related to the economy’s aggregate output very closely. Generally, macroeconomics studies how the government policy can affect above phenomena so that
the following macroeconomic goals may be achieve: stable price level, low unemployment rate, steady economic growth, and healthy financial system.
Microeconomics focuses on four groups activities in the circular of payments, including the private sector – households who receive income from firms and the government, buy goods and services from firms and pay taxes to the government; and firms receive payment from households and the government for goods and services and pay wages to households and pay tax to the government; the public sector – the government receives taxes from households and firms and pay interest and transfers to the household; and lastly the foreign sector – the rest of the worlds who import and export goods and services from households and firms. These four groups play the economic interactions in the macroeconomy in a difference ways for paying and receiving income. In the contrast, firms and households are only involving in the circular flow of economic activity in microeconomy by buying and producing goods and services to each other parties.
Table 1.1 illustrate those different concerns between Microeconomic and Macroeconomic (Principles of Economics 10th Edition, Case, Fair, Oster – Chapter 1)
|Division of Economics |Production |Prices |Income |Employment |
|Microeconomics |Production/output in |Prices of individual |Distribution of income |Employment by individual|
|individual industries |goods and services |and wealth |businesses and |
| |and businesses | | |industries |
|Macroeconomics |National production / |Aggregate price level |National income |Employment and |
| |output | | |unemployment in the |
| | | | |economy |
Table 1.1 Examples of Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Concerns
Interrelation(相互關係) between microeconomics and macroeconomics
While the view of study...