By: Kenneth Martin
You are an IT Network Specialist and are required to develop the design of the company’s telephone system for its new building which will begin construction in a few months. In order to get a background which will help when developing the new system, your supervisor asked you to research the current Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) currently used by the company. You must research the system components and report back to your supervisor , the Telecommunications Manager, within a week.
1. Describe a local land line phone system based on the following Landline Telephone Components:
a. Local Loop
a local loop is the wired ...view middle of the document...
Also referred to as the Central office.
In the telephone system, the point where either an LEC or a long-distance carrier meets another long-distance carrier is deﬁned as the point of presence (POP). The POP provides the interconnection to the long-distance carrier or interexchange carrier (IXC).
e. Long Distance System
In the United States, long-distance service is provided by an IXC. These carriers are used to connect LECs together in different LATAs and sometimes within the same LATA
f. Fixed Line
Some of the ﬁrst installations lacked the ability to be connected to more than one telephone. This is known as a fixed line.
2. Define and describe the following Telecommunications Network Components:
a. Cellular Telephones:
Cellular telephones are wireless telephones that are served by a cellular telephone system. This system is broken into many small geographical areas called cells. Cells are connected to a mobile telephone switching ofﬁce (MTSO). The connection from the cell to the MTSO is typically done over telephone lines. These lines could be copper or ﬁber optic, and in some applications, micro-waves are used.
The ﬁrst generation (1G) cell phones transmitted information in an analog format very similar to the way a ﬁxed-line telephone transmits voice information from the subscriber to the central ofﬁce. However, when the second generation (2G) cell phones entered the market, transmission shifted from analog to digital. Not only do 2G telephones have the ability to transmit and receive voice, but they also have the ability to transmit and receive data.
As 2G technologies matured, it became clear that the cell phone could be used for many applications other than just carrying on a conversation. Many people were using their cell phones to access the Internet. To meet consumer need for data, a third generation (3G) of cell phone technology was introduced. 3G technologies offered higher data rates over 2G, paving the way for multimedia applications While many cell phones in operation today are 3G, they will eventually all be replaced with fourth generation (4G) technology. 4G networks offer 10 or more times the data transmission rate of a 3G network. The data rates available on a 4G network allow the cell phone to access information from the Internet as fast as a land-line connection.
b. Telephone Network Topology:
i. Demarcation Point
The demarcation point, also known as the Demarc, Network Interface Device (NID), or Minimum Point of Entry (MPOE) serves several purposes:
It is the point that defines the end of the telephone company’s wiring, and the beginning of your wiring.
It defines where the telephone company’s responsibility for maintenance ends and your responsibility begins.
It contains a surge suppressor to help protect the wiring and connected equipment in your facility from damage
It allows you to temporarily disconnect your wiring from the telephone company’s wiring for...