‘Examine’ Essay Planning Sheet Name:
Essay Title: Examine the reasons for changes in birth rates and family size since 1900 (24 marks) |
Underline or highlight the key concepts, terms and instructions, by identifying these key elements it will allow you to focus on answering the question.
It is important to use relevant sociological terminology within the context of you essay. List the key sociological terms that will be appropriate for this essay.
Birth rates, family size, baby boom, total fertility rate, economic liability, child centeredness, socially constructed childhood, infant mortality rate |
IntroductionSignpost to the question and ...view middle of the document...
EvidenceUse research or key sociologists | In 2006, one in five women aged 45 was childless and the average age of having children is now 29.6; older women are less fertile and so they can produce less children, adding to the reduction of birth rates. |
EvaluateThis is not a counter argument but a small point to highlight e.g. strength or weakness of the point | However, there has been fluctuations in birth rates with three ‘baby booms’; the first two came after each of the world wars, as people started families that they had postponed during the war years. The third baby boom was in the 1960s, where the total fertility rate of women in 1964 was at its highest point of 2.95. |
Link | Make sure each section of the paragraph links together. Otherwise write a sentence to link it all together |
Paragraph 2Point | Children have become an economic liability, whereas they used to be an economic asset in the 19th century as they could be sent out to work from an early age to earn money. |
Explain | There are now laws which ban child labour, introduce free compulsory education, and raising the school leaving age which means that children are now economically dependent on their parents for much longer than they used to be. There are also changing norms about what children expect from their parents in materialistic terms, and so this means that the cost of having and bringing up children had dramatically risen. |
Evidence | Pilcher (1995) states that the most important feature of modern childhood is separateness and that it is a clear and distinct life stage. |
Evaluate | In support of this, there is increasing child centeredness due to society socially constructing childhood to be a critically important part of a person’s life. This has meant that there is now a shift from quantity to the quality of childhood; parents are now having fewer children so that they can give more attention and resources to these few children. |
Link | |
Paragraph 3Point | The infant mortality rate in the number of infants who die before their first birthday per thousand live births per year. A fall in the IMR rate leads to a fall in the birth rate because parents are having fewer children to replace those who have died. |
Explain | The IMR has dropped since 1900, when it was at 154 meaning that 15% of babies died in their first year, due...