LO6-2: Differentiate between the global task and global general environments.
The task environment is a set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributors, customers, and competitors and affect an organization’s ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs because they influence managers daily. These forces have the most immediate and direct effect on managers because the pressure from them.
The general environment includes the wide-ranging global, economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political, and legal forces that affect an organization and its task environment. Opportunities and threats resulting from changes in the general ...view middle of the document...
3) Sociocultural Forces- pressures emanating from the social structure of country or society or from the national culture. (Social Structure: traditional system of relationships established between people and groups in a society. National culture: set of values that a society considers important and the norms of behavior that are approved or sanctioned in that society.)
4) Demographic Forces- outcomes of changes in, or changing attitudes toward, the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, ethnic origin, race, sexual orientation, and social class.
5) Political/Legal Forces- outcomes of changes in laws and regulations, such as deregulation of industries, privatization
LO6-5: Discuss why national cultures differ and why it is important that managers be sensitive to the effects of falling trade barriers and regional trade barriers and regional trade associations on the political and social systems of nations around the world.
Individualism: worldview that values individual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual achievements rather than by their social background.
Collectivism: worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their contribution to the group.
Power distance: the degree to which societies accept that idea that inequalities in the power and well-being of their citizens are due to differences in individuals’ physical and intellectual capabilities and heritage.
Achievement Orientation: a worldview that values assertiveness, performance, success, and competition.
Nurturing Orientation: a worldview that values the quality of life, warm personal friendships, and services and care for the weak.
Uncertainty Avoidance: the degree to which societies are willing to tolerate uncertainty and risk.
Long-term Orientation: worldview that values thrift and persistence in achieving goals.
Short-term Orientation: worldview that values personal stability or happiness and living for the present.
Differences among national cultures have important implications for managers. Cultural differences cause management practices that are effective in one country might be troublesome in another.
LO8-2: Describe some techniques managers can use to improve the planning process so they can better predict the future and mobilize organizational resources to meet future contingencies.
Scenario Planning: generation of multiple forecasts of future conditions followed by an analysis of how to respond effectively to each of those conditions… this is also known as contingency planning.
Managers must define a business using specific questions. 1) Who are our customers? 2) What customer needs is being satisfied? 3) How are we satisfying customer needs? These questions identify the customer needs that organizations satisfies and how the organization satisfies...