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Evolution Of Management Essay

528 words - 3 pages

Evolution of the Management Theory


Early Management

3000 – 2500 BC

The Egyptian pyramids are proof that projects of tremendous scope, employing tens of thousands of people, were completed in ancient times. It took more than 100, 000 workers some 20 years to construct a single pyramid.

Someone had to plan what was to be done, organize people and materials to do it make sure those workers got the work done, and impose some controls to ensure that everything was done as planned. That someone was manager.


At the arsenal of Venice, warships were floated along the canals, and each stop, materials and riggings were added to the ship. In addition, the Venetians used warehouse an inventory systems to keep track of materials, human resource management functions to manage the labor force (including wine breaks), and an ...view middle of the document...

Rules and principles were developed that could be taught and used in a variety of settings.

* Frederick W. Taylor - Father of Scientific Management
Stresses "One Best Way" to do a job
Bethlehem Steel - Pig Iron Experiments

1916 – 1947
* Henri Fayol
Introduced the 14 principles of Management

Behavioral Approach

The behavioral approach to management focused on the actions of workers. How do you motivate and lead employees I order to get high levels of performance?

Late 1700s – early 1900s
* Hugo Munsterberg
Application of psychology to field of management (employee training employee motivation)

1924 – mid-1930s
* George Elton Mayo
Western Electric "Hawthorne Studies
Social needs as motivators - Father of Human Relations
Impact of group interaction and group norms
The "Hawthorne Effect" in research

1930s – 1950s
* Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
* Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y

1960s – Today
* Organizational Behavior

Quantitative Approaches

* Quantitative Approach to Management
Use of mathematical and statistical tools in production

* W. Edwards Deming - Father of TQM
14 principles of TQM

Contemporary Approaches

Most of the early approaches to management focused on mangers concerns inside the organization. Starting in the 1960s, management researchers began to look at what was happening in the external environment outside the organization.

* Open Systems (Organizations functions as open systems which means they are influenced by and interact with their environment.)
* Contingency approach (Situational Approach)

1980s – Present

* Technology era
* Managers are working at home

Review Questions:

1. What are the contributions of Taylor and Fayol in the development of management? Explain.

2. What is Bureaucratic Management?

3. Identify the following personalities and their contribution to management.

a. George Elton Mayo
b. W. Edwards Deming

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