Evaluating the research process
Teenage pregnancy inflicts indirect costs related to lost education and jobs, as well as direct costs related to public assistance services used during and after pregnancy. A major concern is that the majority of teenage pregnancies are unintended. 79 percent of teens 18 to 19 years old and almost 87 percent of teens 15 to 17 years old reported their pregnancy as unintended in 2001. Policies and programs need to be put into place to help teens make well-informed choices about sexual activities. Because teens lack formal education and training they rely heavily on public assistance programs. Adams, Gavin, Ayadi, Santelli, & Raskind-Hood felt there was a need ...view middle of the document...
Literature reviews usually include scholarly journals, scholarly books, authoritative databases, and primary sources (Curtis, 2011). It goes beyond the search for information and includes the identification and articulation of relationships between the literature and the researchers’ field of study (Boote & Beile, 2005). A researcher can learn what other studies have learned and have failed to do so that he can make a contribution to the knowledge of their research field (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010).
The authors of The Costs of Public Services for Teenage Mothers Post-Welfare Reform: A Ten-State Study (2009) reviewed various literatures. They looked at studies that performed single-birth, single-cohort, and single-year governmental cost of teen pregnancy (Adams, Gavin, Ayadi, Santelli, & Raskind-Hood, 2009). They also looked at the number/type of services examined by previous studies. The authors noted that even though there was plenty of data on teen pregnancy, they reflect a time before major changes in economic and social policies (welfare reform) affected teens’ medical care and support services (Adams, Gavin, Ayadi, Santelli, & Raskind-Hood, 2009). The article also mentions that these previous studies provided cost estimates for a single ‘cohort’ of teens which relied on assumptions about future behavior. The study in this article wants to add to existing literature by using post-welfare reform data and data on selected services as they are actually reported by teen and older moms (Adams, Gavin, Ayadi, Santelli, & Raskind-Hood, 2009). They also believe that the data they provide will help public efforts aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies (Adams, Gavin, Ayadi, Santelli, & Raskind-Hood, 2009).
Ethical considerations for data collection
Data gathering is an essential part of every research study (UWEA, n.d.). The collection of data and the method used must be in line with the research question and objectives (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). Faulty data collection can affect the results of a study and lead to inaccurate results (UWEA, n.d.). A researcher may mean well, but failure to consider ethical situations is unacceptable (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010).
Ethics refers to doing what is morally and legally right in the conducting of research (Dantzker & Hunter, 2010). This requires the researcher to be knowledgeable about what is being done; to use reasoning when making decisions; to be both intellectual and truthful in approach and reporting; and to consider the consequences, meaning, to be sure that the outcome of the research greatly outweighs any negative that might occur (Dantzker & Hunter, 2010). Researchers whose subjects are human or animals must consider the conduct of the research, and give attention to the ethical issues associated with carrying out such research (Data collection, n.d.). Some major ethical dilemmas are justification, informed consent of the subjects, confidentiality, honesty, responsibility of the researcher, and...