This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism

4625 words - 19 pages

This is the pre-published version – For final version see:

Andriotis, K. (2004). European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 52(3): 277-284.

This paper examines the role of the European Union (EU) in influencing employment in the tourism industry of its member states. Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are directly employed in tourism. The figure of persons directly employed in tourism varies from 1.7 to 7.8 depending on the member state. Due to the potential of EU tourism for generating jobs in this paper undertakes a review over the problems related to tourism ...view middle of the document...

7% or 31,520 persons) followed by Sweden (2.3% or 96,805 persons).

Table 1: Tourism employment in EU (2003)
Member state Direct employment
in tourism Direct and indirect employment in tourism Ratio of 1 tourism job to total employment
No of persons % of total employment No of persons % of total employment
Belgium 150,468 3.7 436,981 10.8 1 in every 9.2 jobs
Denmark 64,914 2.9 193,230 8.7 1 in every 11.6 jobs
Germany 1,204,230 3.1 4,158,950 10.8 1 in every 9.3 jobs
Greece 205,285 5.0 687,026 16.8 1 in every 5.9 jobs
Spain 1,279,260 7.8 3,261,240 19.9 1 in every 5.0 jobs
France 1,337,180 5.5 3,398,630 13.9 1 in every 7.2 jobs
Ireland 31,520 1.7 132,555 7.3 1 in every 13.6 jobs
Italy 1,063,210 4.9 2,651,640 12.2 1 in every 8.2 jobs
Luxemburg 7,704 4.1 27,256 14.4 1 in every 6.9 jobs
Netherlands 252,950 3.4 695,068 9.3 1 in every 10.8 jobs
Austria 234,753 5.7 679,150 16.5 1 in every 6.1 jobs
Portugal 311,915 6.3 819,448 16.7 1 in every 6.0 jobs
Finland 86,877 3.6 276,951 11.6 1 in every 8.6 jobs
Sweden 96,805 2.3 306,685 7.2 1 in every 14.0 jobs
UK 1,061,470 3.6 2,953,330 10.0 1 in every 10.0 jobs
Source: World Travel and Tourism Council (2003).

Considering that the tourism industry creates substantial indirect jobs through complementary activities, such as retail trade, food processing manufacturing, services, and construction, the total number of EU jobs rises up to 20 million. Spain has the highest percentage of persons directly or indirectly involved in tourism activities (19.9% or approximately 3.3 million persons), followed by Greece with 687,026 persons or 16.8%. As a result, in Spain one out of 5 persons is directly or indirectly employed in tourism activities, followed by Greece (1 in every 5.9), although countries such as Sweden and Denmark have received less benefits through tourism employment (1 in every 14 jobs and 11.6 respectively). Forecasts indicate a steady growth of tourism in EU (CEC 2001a) to the extend that travel and tourism jobs in EU will be increased by 2 million during the next ten years (EU 2003).
Past evaluations of EU interest towards tourism are based either on certain programmes and their performance in terms of achievement of objectives established or on the overall EU regional policy towards tourism (e.g. Armstrong 1995; Bull 1999; Hjalager 1996; Lowyck and Wanhill 1992; Wanhill 1996). As a result, there is lack of research towards EU contribution towards single aspects of tourism development. Specifically, although the potential of tourism as a job generator, there is a negligence of past research towards EU initiatives towards tourism employment. Bearing this in mind, the current study was undertaken with the aim to review and evaluate past and current EU initiatives towards employment in the tourism industry. In doing so, this paper is divided into three sections. Section one presents the employment problems faced by EU tourism enterprises. Section two reviews past and current EU...

Other Papers Like European Union Influence over Tourism Employment. Tourism

History and Structure of the Travel and Tourism Sector

4624 words - 19 pages Activities Of Tour Operating |10 | |LO2: Influence Of Local And National Government And International agencies On The Travel And Tourism Sector |11 | |LO2.1 – Analyse The Function Of Government, Government Sponsored Bodies And International Agencies In Travel And |11 | |Tourism

New-Fangled League: Cruise, Medical, Film, Wedding And Spiritual Tourism

5197 words - 21 pages induces a chain of transactions requiring supply of goods and services from the related sectors. The consumption demand, emanating from tourist expenditure also induces more employment and generates a multiplier effect on the economy. 2.1Present Scenario of Tourism in India: • The Indian Tourism sector is one of the largest service industries in the country in terms of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and

Project Report on Torism

2485 words - 10 pages 
future. SPORTS
Walmsley David
author. As

Travel And Tourism In Stalin’S Russia

4085 words - 17 pages suitcases and were extremely apprehensive towards them. Stalin’s regime also used the media to create an atmosphere within the Soviet that was not only hostile to foreigners but also created the environment for a collective and national unity to flourish , at least from the point of view of the state; by using the medium of the control placed over travel and tourism, the state managed to exert great pressure and influence on it own citizens. Hence

Tourism Management

3140 words - 13 pages escorts Tourism organizations Secondary constituents Shops and state emporiums Arts and crafts Local transport Banks Insurance companies Communication services- Media Performing artists Publishers Advertisers Hawkers and coolies Agents and brokers 16. 16. Tourist Motivation and Behaviour 16 17. 17. Tourist motivations and typologies • Why do people go on holiday? • What factors influence their choices? • An understanding of the above can be

Thai Tourism

1756 words - 8 pages [pic] The develop strategy of Thailand tourism Thailand's international tourism is the most important position of developing countries in Asia .Thailand received foreign tourists nearly 10 million people in 2000, foreign exchange earnings over 7 billion US dollars. According to the Thai, to 2006, the number is expected to host international tourism will reach 14 million, which means that each year to maintain 7 percent growth rate

The Travel And Tourism Sector

2717 words - 11 pages generator. 7  The Facilitator: educating industry participants. 7  The Networking Forum 7 Q 2.2 Illustrate how local and national economic policy has an effect on the success of the travel and tourism sector 8 GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC POLICY AND TOURISM 8 • Direct Influence 8 Taxation (remove money) 8 Infrastructure investment and maintenance (inject money) Government spending on tourism 8 Tourism development 9 • Indirect Influence 9 Q 2.3

Sustainable Tourism In Canada

9417 words - 38 pages Economic influence…………………………………………………………17 5.2 Social influence……………………………………………………………...18 6. Reference………………………………………………………………………..19 1. Canadian Tourism Industry 1.1 Canadian tourism industry introduction Canadian tourism industry as a dynamic and increasing sector plays more and more important role in the integrated Canadian economy. Over the last five years the Canadian tourism sector outperformed the overall Canadian


1506 words - 7 pages Hungarian population. 15. Drifts of European tourism and their changes in the past 10-15 years considering the impact of geopolitical axes on the corridors of tourism. 16. Trends of the development of Hungarian transport network (public roads, railways, light railway), their impact on the development of regions less frequented by tourism, giving an international overview. 17. Comparative analysis of the requirements of domestic

Tourism and Gastronomy

3494 words - 14 pages are grown and appreciate how culinary traditions have come into existence” (Hjalager and Richards 2002). Gastronomy tourism is a growth segment, and typically culinary tours are increasingly being combined with other activities such as cultural tours, heritage, walking, etc. Therefore, this is a segment that appeals to a broad range of consumers. Growth in this niche market is expected to be strong over the next 5-10 years, although from a

Tourism Industry in Belize

991 words - 4 pages activities are often included under other sectors in national accounts. However, in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which are frequently affected by disasters, tourism is a significant sector of the economy because of the foreign currency earnings and employment it generates. Tourism for Belize began in the mid-1960s. At the time Belize became known as a diving destination. For almost two decades, development was focused on the

Related Essays

Vienna Influence Of Before The Sunrise On Tourism

702 words - 3 pages Introduction Why Vienna and why Before the Sunrise (1995) - very authentic city - movie about travelling; it represents 2 different cultures revealing a 3rd culture; - shows both famous/ must-see places, but in the same time unknown or not so famous places in Vienna; - inspiration Methodology - articles concerning both Vienna and film-induced tourism were examined; - the main concepts related to Vienna and

Sustainable Tourism Essay

612 words - 3 pages examine the cost benefit analysis of tourism and it was acknowledged that potential costs of tourism are far lower than financial benefits in shape of balance pf payment surpluses, infrastructure development, and employment and foreign exchange gains. So that gave rise to the concept of sustainable tourism as one of the source of bringing sustainable development. According to the World’s Summit on Sustainable Development (2002), it is claimed

Sustainable Tourism Essay

5004 words - 21 pages Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for the local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves. But sustainable tourism is not the same as ecotourism. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Commission on

Domino's Sizzles With Pizza Tracker Essay

2281 words - 10 pages increase as much as prices, also it can impact on land costs. Although Dr. Persa Fokiali maintains that tourism increases a countries GDP quoting that ‘Tourism contributes by 5.5% to the EU’s GDP.Its contribution to the GDP of some European countries is sustainably higher. Thus it represents 9.4% of Spain’s GDP, 9% of France’s, 8.2% of Portugal’s, 6.3% of Italy’s and more than 8% of Greece’s. In some tourist developed regions (like Rhodes, Majorca