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European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism

4625 words - 19 pages

This is the pre-published version – For final version see:

Andriotis, K. (2004). European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 52(3): 277-284.

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the role of the European Union (EU) in influencing employment in the tourism industry of its member states. Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are directly employed in tourism. The figure of persons directly employed in tourism varies from 1.7 to 7.8 depending on the member state. Due to the potential of EU tourism for generating jobs in this paper undertakes a review over the problems related to tourism ...view middle of the document...

7% or 31,520 persons) followed by Sweden (2.3% or 96,805 persons).


Table 1: Tourism employment in EU (2003)
Member state Direct employment
in tourism Direct and indirect employment in tourism Ratio of 1 tourism job to total employment
No of persons % of total employment No of persons % of total employment
Belgium 150,468 3.7 436,981 10.8 1 in every 9.2 jobs
Denmark 64,914 2.9 193,230 8.7 1 in every 11.6 jobs
Germany 1,204,230 3.1 4,158,950 10.8 1 in every 9.3 jobs
Greece 205,285 5.0 687,026 16.8 1 in every 5.9 jobs
Spain 1,279,260 7.8 3,261,240 19.9 1 in every 5.0 jobs
France 1,337,180 5.5 3,398,630 13.9 1 in every 7.2 jobs
Ireland 31,520 1.7 132,555 7.3 1 in every 13.6 jobs
Italy 1,063,210 4.9 2,651,640 12.2 1 in every 8.2 jobs
Luxemburg 7,704 4.1 27,256 14.4 1 in every 6.9 jobs
Netherlands 252,950 3.4 695,068 9.3 1 in every 10.8 jobs
Austria 234,753 5.7 679,150 16.5 1 in every 6.1 jobs
Portugal 311,915 6.3 819,448 16.7 1 in every 6.0 jobs
Finland 86,877 3.6 276,951 11.6 1 in every 8.6 jobs
Sweden 96,805 2.3 306,685 7.2 1 in every 14.0 jobs
UK 1,061,470 3.6 2,953,330 10.0 1 in every 10.0 jobs
Source: World Travel and Tourism Council (2003).

Considering that the tourism industry creates substantial indirect jobs through complementary activities, such as retail trade, food processing manufacturing, services, and construction, the total number of EU jobs rises up to 20 million. Spain has the highest percentage of persons directly or indirectly involved in tourism activities (19.9% or approximately 3.3 million persons), followed by Greece with 687,026 persons or 16.8%. As a result, in Spain one out of 5 persons is directly or indirectly employed in tourism activities, followed by Greece (1 in every 5.9), although countries such as Sweden and Denmark have received less benefits through tourism employment (1 in every 14 jobs and 11.6 respectively). Forecasts indicate a steady growth of tourism in EU (CEC 2001a) to the extend that travel and tourism jobs in EU will be increased by 2 million during the next ten years (EU 2003).
Past evaluations of EU interest towards tourism are based either on certain programmes and their performance in terms of achievement of objectives established or on the overall EU regional policy towards tourism (e.g. Armstrong 1995; Bull 1999; Hjalager 1996; Lowyck and Wanhill 1992; Wanhill 1996). As a result, there is lack of research towards EU contribution towards single aspects of tourism development. Specifically, although the potential of tourism as a job generator, there is a negligence of past research towards EU initiatives towards tourism employment. Bearing this in mind, the current study was undertaken with the aim to review and evaluate past and current EU initiatives towards employment in the tourism industry. In doing so, this paper is divided into three sections. Section one presents the employment problems faced by EU tourism enterprises. Section two reviews past and current EU...

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