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Essay 2 Notes

1645 words - 7 pages

The primary function of the federal courts is to apply and enforce all federal laws created
by Congress. These laws, in the form of statutes or codifi ed law, include a large body of
federal criminal laws that range from violations of environmental laws to treason and
piracy. (Chapt. 8, p. 12)

The federal courts have a second and perhaps even more important function: They are
continually called on to test the constitutionality of federal and state legislation and of court
decisions. (Ch.8, p.13)

At the lowest level of jurisdiction are the federal
magistrates, formerly called United States
commissioners. The magistrates not only have
trial jurisdiction over minor federal ...view middle of the document...

These courts are variously called municipal courts, justice of the
peace courts, and magistrate’s courts. They are known more generally as courts of limited
jurisdiction . (Ch. 8, p.7)

Courts of special
jurisdiction include courts that specialize in certain areas of law: family courts, juvenile
courts, and probate courts (which deal with the transfer of the property and money (Ch.8, p.7)

The United States district courts are the trial courts of the federal court system. Within limits set by Congress and the Constitution, the district courts have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil and criminal matters. Every day hundreds of people across the nation are selected for jury duty and help decide some of these cases.(internet, US Courts)

How the federal court works? Civil cases, criminal cases, bankruptcy & appeals

he Supreme Court is the highest court in the federal Judiciary. Congress has established two levels of federal courts under the Supreme Court: the trial courts and the appellate courts. (Internet, US Courts)
The United States district courts are the trial courts of the federal court system. Within limits set by Congress and the Constitution, the district courts have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil and criminal matters. here are two special trial courts that have nationwide jurisdiction over certain types of cases. The Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and customs issues. The United States Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction over most claims for monetary damages against the United States, disputes over federal contracts, unlawful "taking" of private property by the federal government, and a variety of other claims against the United States.(Internet, US Courts)

A court of appeals hears appeals from the district courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies. In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases decided by the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal Claims. (Internet, US Courts)

great majority of legal disputes in American courts are addressed in the separate state court systems.
For example, state courts handle cases involving
• divorce and child custody matter;
• probate and inheritance issues;
• real estate questions, and juvenile matters; and
• most criminal cases, contract disputes, traffic violations, and personal injury cases.
Federal courts hear cases involving
• the constitutionality of a law;
• cases involving the laws and treaties of the U.S.;
• ambassadors and public ministers;
• disputes between two or more states;
• admiralty law; and
• bankruptcy cases.
The Municipal Court is the judicial branch of Phoenix city...

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