Born on the 15th of June 1902, Erik Erikson was a German born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst. He is most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. Erik’s mother was from a prominent Jewish family who lived in Copenhagen, Denmark, little is known about Erik’s biological father and he was adopted by his stepfather in 1911. He was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion, making him the centre of bullying at his temple for being a Nordic and at his grammar school for being a Jew. The development of identity became one of Erikson’s greatest concerns. In 1930 he married Joan Mowat Serson, a Canadian dancer and artist whom Erikson ...view middle of the document...
If the caretakers meet these needs reliably, the babies become attached and develop a sense of security. Otherwise, they may develop a mistrustful, insecure attitude.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Between the ages of one and three, toddlers start to gain independence and learn skills such as toilet training, feeding themselves, and dressing themselves. Depending on how they face these challenges, toddlers can develop a sense of autonomy or a sense of doubt and shame about themselves.
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
Between the ages of three and six, children must learn to control their impulses and act in a socially responsible way. If they can do this effectively, children become more self- confident. If not, they may develop a strong sense of guilt.
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
Between the ages of six and twelve, children compete with peers in school and prepare to take on adult roles. They end this stage with either a sense of competence or a sense of inferiority.
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
During adolescence, which is the period between puberty and adulthood, children try to determine their identity and their direction in life. Depending on their success, they either acquire a sense of identity or remain uncertain about their roles in life.
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
In young adulthood, people face the challenge of developing intimate relationships with others. If they do not succeed, they may become isolated and lonely.
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Self-Absorption
As people reach middle adulthood, they work to become productive members of society, either through parenting or through their jobs. If they fail, they become overly self-absorbed.
Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair
In old age, people examine their lives. They may either have a sense of contentment or be disappointed about their lives and fearful of the future.
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Stage Conflict Faced Typical Age Range Major Challenge(s)
1 Trust vs....