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Ergonomics Essay

1319 words - 6 pages

Chapter 24

List the 5 groups of applications for time/unit

1) Cost Allocation – without time/unit you can’t determine costs. Example without direct labor time, then you won’t be able to determine the direct labor and burden cost of the product so you may be losing money on every unit without knowing it.
2) Production and Inventory control – without time/unit you can’t schedule or staff. How long to make assemblies? How many workers are needed for an order an how long?
3) Evaluation of alternatives – without time/unit can’t compare alternatives. Examples, which screws to use.
4) Acceptable day’s work – without time/unit supervisors have difficulty in judging the ...view middle of the document...

Normal Time:
(Observed time) (Rating) = Normal time

Standard Time:
Normal time is not representative of the time the experienced worker would take working all day. Additional time must be given for personal, fatigue, and delay allowances. The resulting time is called standard time.

What is the difference between a shift allowance and a work time allowance?
Shift allowances are expressed as a percent of shift time:
Standard time = Normal time/ (1 - Allowances)

Work allowances are expressed as a percent of work time:
Standard time = Normal time/ (1 + Allowances)

Chapter 25

Is the goal of a type 1 standard a should-take time or a did-take time?

The goal of a type 1 standard is a “should take” time, not the “did take” time of a type II standard. If a time study is done without a preceding methods analysis the results is a Type II standard.

Give the 5 reasons to break a job into elements

1) Elements make it possible to reuse the data
2) Elements permit different ratings for different elements
3) Elements permit consistency checks, within the study and between studies
4) Elements improve methods descriptions
5) If the task is not in elements, then none of the data can be used since it is incomplete

Does rating accuracy depend on the deviation from 100% pace, or is it relatively constant for all paces?

Rating accuracy is greater if the performance is close to 100%. As performance gets farther from 100%, the absolute error of rating increases. Therefore, to improve rating accuracy, study an average operator if possible.

From a statistics viewpoint, the number of observations depends upon what three factors?
1) Accuracy desired
2) Confidence desired
3) Data variability

*Assume that during a time study, the supervisor came by and gave some instructions to the worker how would this time be incorporated in to the standard time?

*If accuracy of the time standard is especially important consider making two or three shorter studies rather than one long study. You will be estimating the population characteristics from several samples instead of one.

In pace rating, does the observer concentrate on the stationary or dynamic micro motions?

The observer estimates the pace that is primarily concentrates on the dynamic micro motions such as reach and move rather than the stationary micro motions such as positions and grasp

Chapter 26

What are the two purposes of making a PTS (predetermined time systems) analysis?
1) Determine an efficient work method
2) Determine the time/unit for the efficient...

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