Equality and Civil Rights
March 5, 2012
Instructor Georganna Gabrielli
Segregation is the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart. African Americans had been set apart for years. They have been discriminated against and isolated from others. It was a hard battle that we are sometimes still fighting.
Discrimination is the unjust of prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex. Blacks were discriminated against a lot in the earlier years. Blacks were not allowed to use the same toilets as whites. Blacks even had separate water ...view middle of the document...
Gayle federal case on December 20, 1956, upheld by the Supreme Court, that the Alabama bus segregation laws were unconstitutional. Even before Dr. King there were many other pioneers that were paving the way. Harriet Tubman was born a slave she became the operator of the Underground Railroad. She escaped in 1849. She then dedicated herself to fight for freedom. Harriet originally name Araminta freed many slaves using the Underground Railroad. This was her way of helping us gain equality.
A group of African American lawyers decided that the best way to combat segregation was through the legal system. One of the African American lawyers was Charles Houston, the dean of the law school Howard University, an African American college in Washington, DC. Houston began his mission in the 1920s, and assembled promising black lawyers to coordinate what he knew would be a long legal fight. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was essential to the plan, and Houston called it the “crystallizing force” (Hine, 2003). Houston searched for African American scholars for his new law program, and he discovered Thurgood Marshall as his most promising student. Marshall knew that the path to equality was a slow one that should be fought in the courts and not in the streets. After law school, Marshall went to work for the NAACP, where he reinforced his commitment to American values and the ideal of its justice system. Slowly over the course of two decades (from the 1930s to the 1940s), Thurgood Marshall made several small gains in the court system, most notably the Smith v. Allright case in 1944, which ended segregation in the Texas state primary. He presented more than 30 civil rights cases before the Supreme Court and won 29 of them. His most important case was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), which ended segregation in public schools. By law black and white students had to attend separate public schools. As long as schools were “separate but equal”, providing equal education for all races, segregated was considered fair? In reality, segregated schools were far more privileged than black schools, which were largely poor and overcrowded. Thurgood Marshall challenged the doctrine, arguing that if all students were indeed equal, then why was it necessary to separate them. The Supreme Court agreed, ruling that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” Thurgood Marshall went on to become the first African American Supreme Court Justice in American history.
On February 1, 1960, four...