Epidemiology Of Influenza Essay

1537 words - 7 pages

Epidemiology of Influenza

As we welcome the winter season every year, we also welcome the possibility of various communicable diseases that are prone to present during the winter season. Diseases such as pneumonia, measles, chickenpox, and influenza are some of the diseases that make their annual debut during the winter season. These diseases affect certain parts of the body in which compromise ones health in one way or the other. Influenza is a communicable infectious viral disease which has the potential to occur as a pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak. Each year the influenza vaccine is offered in order to prevent and/or lessen the effect of the disease. In this paper the ...view middle of the document...

Influenza type C causes mild respiratory illness. According to the CDC, the type of the virus depends on the surface protein present on the virus (CDC, 2014). Types A and B are responsible for the seasonal epidemic of the disease every winter. Influenza type A can be broken down into subtypes and strains based on two different proteins on the surface of the virus known as the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N). The difference in the surface protein determines the variation of the disease (CDC, 2014). In 2009 a new strand of the type A influenza surfaced called H1N1 which was different from the human influenza virus that was infecting humans at the time. This new strand of influenza caused the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years as reported by the CDC (2014).
Transmission of the influenza virus from human to human can happen in three ways: infection can result from direct contact with others who are infected, contaminated objects and lastly by a person inhaling viral particles in the air, aerosols. The smaller the particles are the higher they are able to suspend in the air and in the same manner, the smaller the particles are, the lower they can go into the respiratory tract to cause infection. This is how pneumonia may result from the infection (CDC, 2014). According to Smith and Maurer, the amount of agent which is known as the infective dose needed to produce illness can vary. The more infective the agent is the less exposure required to produce illness (2009). The higher the virulence of the microorganism, the more potent. The determinants of the disease are based on the exposure to the microorganism. Anyone can contract the flu by coming in contact with an infected person or object. Practice in hand washing is a major part of prevention of the spread of such microorganisms. Factors that contribute to the spread of influenza is not practicing hand washing, infected individuals not covering their mouth while coughing or sneezing, and contaminated objects easily accessible to others in the environment.
Influenza is a respiratory illness that comes on suddenly. Influenza virus is different from the common cold. Signs and symptoms of influenza may include but is not limited to fever, chills, coughing, sore throat, muscle and body aches, fatigue and vomiting and diarrhea (CDC, 2014). Vomiting and diarrhea more often presents in children and not in adults. Sometimes there are complications induced by the influenza virus. As previously mentioned, influenza is a respiratory illness which means that there is impact on the lungs. When many people are infected with the flu virus medical attention and medication is not requires because the illness passes within a few days to two weeks.
Sometimes there are complications of contracting the virus. Some of the complications include but are not limited to pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus and ear infections. Complications of influenza can lead to hospitalization and even death in some...

Other Papers Like Epidemiology of Influenza

Epidemiology and Vulnerable Populations Essay

1989 words - 8 pages Introduction Health is a state of optimum well-being, a human right and a social goal. The public health mission is to provide and assure conditions that promote health in the community. Public health, epidemiology and nursing practice share the same goal of disease prevention and control. By definition, epidemiology is the study of population in order to monitor the health of the population

Flu Virus Essay

1950 words - 8 pages Discussion of Communicable Disease: Seasonal Influenza Marcie E. Boone, RN Grand Canyon University- NRS- 427V September 2, 2014 Discussion of Communicable Disease: Seasonal Influenza Each year the general public is urged to take action to avoid getting the Seasonal Flu virus by, encourage the pubic to obtain the vaccine before January. It is also; widely made known to the general public the impact of the Flu virus and that it can lead

The Decimating Effects Of Infectious Disease In The New World

2477 words - 10 pages , arthritis, and tuberculosis are all thought to have existed in pre-Columbian America. However, tracing epidemiology in the 15th century is difficult because so little was done to identify and classify diseases and their symptoms during this time period. One might say that the New World was "ripe" for the onslaught of hitherto unknown diseases due to several demographic shifts prior to 1492. These are parallel to shifts that

Evolution of New and Old Disease

1735 words - 7 pages Evolution of New and Old Communicable Diseases According to Gordis (2004), epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states and event of diseases in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems”. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is contagious and potentially life threatening form of pneumonia which was first detected in February 2003 in Asia and

Epidemiology Hiv

1662 words - 7 pages Epidemiology of HIV Clinton L. Lewis, RN Grand Canyon University: Concepts in Community and Public Health January 29, 2014 HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a life threatening global pandemic that has claimed the lives of millions worldwide. HIV is primarily a sexually transmitted infection, but has a host of additional vectors. This virus is also be transmitted via contact with blood that contains the virus, transferred during

Contagism V. Anti-Contagism

2272 words - 10 pages , contaminated water spread typhoid and cholera, rats through their fleas spread plague(Barry. “The great influenza”, p50). The filth theory, could not however, account for how disease spread from person to person without existing “filth” conditions. The upper class drove sanitary reforms in 19th century England for fear of lower class upheaval as a result of disease out breaks. Public Health Act 1848, created a General Board of Health in the

Overview Of Malaria As A Microbial Disease

2152 words - 9 pages different types of pathogens that cause sickness. These are viral diseases that are the most common type of microbe causing diseases to human beings. Examples of viral diseases include AIDS, chicken pox, influenza and measles (World Health Organization, 2004). Bacterial diseases such as anthrax, cholera, chlamydia and peptic ulcer diseases give an account of the second class of microbial diseases. Fungal diseases such as athlete’s foot and Dutch elm

Persuasive Research Paper

2087 words - 9 pages gunfire than from cancer, pneumonia, influenza, asthma, and HIV/AIDS combined. Children’s Defense Fund. Firearm deaths among kids under 15 are almost 12 times higher in the United States than in other industrialized countries combined, says Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Education Association Health Information Network (2005). From Statistics Facts & Quotes in 2005 there were 1,019 gun deaths in the state of Illinois, which


2628 words - 11 pages Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) * 1st cause of Otitis Media * Sputum: bloody/ rusty colored * Prevention: pneumococcal conjugate vaccine* Quellung: Ab binds to capsule of: * S. pneumoniae * K. pneumoniae * N. meningitides * H. influenzae * E. coli * Salmonella | *sidenote: Incidence = new cases; prevalence = new + old 3. Gram (-) coccobacilli | Haemophilus influenza | Haemophilus aegyptius | Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Impact of Indoor Air Quality Towards Workers’ Health Performance on Safety Engineering Perspective

5011 words - 21 pages status of the office workers and the healthier the workers, the better their performance at work. 6 REFERENCES Almond D. 2006. Is the 1918 influenza Pandemic Over? Long- Term Effects of In Utero Influenza in the Post- 1940. Journal of Political Economy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) (2004). ASHRAE standard 62.American Standard. Babura v S. E. W. Investors, No. 90-CA-10594 (D

Public Health and Primary Care

4195 words - 17 pages steroid therapy. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE2004) advocates the use of a spiromentry as being essential to diagnose and assess the severity of COPD. This was used by the COPD nurse to measure Lillian .Other supportive measures could be the use of a nebuliser and influenza vaccination. This can be reflected by the local trusts guidelines for medicine management of COPD. The term COPD covers both emphysema and

Related Essays

Epidemiology Of Influenza Essay

1455 words - 6 pages Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology of Influenza Jaime Mercado Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-O504 Misty Stone August 14, 2015 Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology of Influenza At the start of every winter season, hospitals rapidly begin preparation for the “Flu Season,” a time where vaccines are pushed heavily and every running/stuffy nose complete with fever is closely monitored to see if

Influenza Essay

1364 words - 6 pages Influenza From 1918 to 1919, a flu outbreak, later termed a pandemic, was the most notorius and lethal of its kind. The exact number of deaths is unknown, but it estimated to be from 50 to 100 million people. This outbreak has been described as “the greatest medical holocaust in history” was comparable in impact to the Black Death. (Langford, 2002, p. 1-20) Influenza, also known as ‘the flu’, is a highly contagious illness caused by

Community Essay

1280 words - 6 pages ). In addition, the outbreak responders should take the annual influenza vaccination and start antiviral medications during a response to an outbreak. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015, March 13). Influenza (Flu): Outbreaks of Avian Influenza in North America. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/outbreaks.htm Food and Agriculture Organization (2015). Animal Health: Epidemiology of Avian

Epidemiology Paper

1568 words - 7 pages Epidemiology Paper Name: Course: Date: Epidemiology Paper Influenza or simply flu is one of the most devastating communicable diseases. This is because it is transmitted through the air we breathe. This simply means that being in the company of a mammal or bird that is infected is more than good enough reason for one to get infected (Naff, 2011). Influenza is caused by an influenza virus which can be of