Developing Interprofessional Skills
in Health Promotion & Public Health Practice.
Epidemiology and Health Promotion
Epidemiology and Health Promotion 2008
Epidemiology can be defined as ‘the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in communities’ (Ewles and Simnett, 2003, p108). It can provide health promoters with valuable information about the health of a population, assisting with the identification of particular health issues in a community. ‘Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health’ (WHO, 1984).
This assignment will examine four data ...view middle of the document...
Have figures decreased or increased and is this a high rate of type 2 diabetes compared with regional figures elsewhere in England?
Information on health-related lifestyle and behaviour may be significant. By examining the links between exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet with type 2 diabetes, health promoters can target those most at risk.
By exploring the data statement further and ascertaining the additional information, the health promoter would be better equipped to determine a more effective and targeted health promotion intervention. This must be appropriate to needs of the population and use the resources at our disposal potentially more efficiently.
• What are the limitations of the data?
It has already been established that the data statement needs additional information, if an effective health promotion intervention is to be undertaken. The broad geographical area, the reference to ‘people’ without identifying specific groups, could all limit the effectiveness of a health promotion action.
The statement has no date; we are not aware if the data is current, or whether it is statistical information relating to prevalence or incidence. Is it describing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes within the given population or the amount of new cases diagnosed over a certain time?
Prevalence is the ‘measure of how much illness there is in a population at a particular point in time or over a specific period’ (Ewles and Simnett, 2003, p339).
Incidence is ‘the number of new episodes of illness arising in a population over a specified period of time’ (Ewles and Simnett, 2003, p337).
We are not aware how the identified group cope with their diagnosis or if support services are accessed. The perception within this group could be a positive one, viewing themselves as healthy within the confines of their condition.
How many within the population are unaware they have type 2 diabetes, there may be undiagnosed people living in the community with out medical support.
The limitations of the data presented need to be taken into consideration, ignoring them could influence the effectiveness of health promotion interventions.
• What factors influence reliability of the data?
Having examined the data statement, several factors influence its reliability.
Detailed knowledge of the population is lacking and spread over a large geographical area.
Details of how the data was obtained are not provided. Did Diabetes UK collect information from official NHS monitoring systems locally or nationally? Alternatively was it from there own database, therefore this may not be a sample representative of the population.
Therefore, the epidemiological data contained in the statement needs deeper exploration, if a targeted and potentially more effective health promotion intervention is to take place.
Uptake of MMR vaccine was 81% in England 2004-5. Source NHS
• What additional information...