England And Russia: Political Problems In The 16th Century

1233 words - 5 pages

The Sixteen century was difficult times for both England and Russia; each having

leaders that experienced family violent and obstacles to their rights to the throne. Queen

Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603), her mother was killed when she was young, and she was

considered illegitimate for the throne. She finally inherited the throne after the bad

leaderships of her cousin Lady Grey, and that of her half-sister Mary I. Her inheritance

was bankrupt and secondary to Spain in Europeans’ affairs. Having a Royal Queen as it

leader, the English had doubts about their future, but Queen Elizabeth proved valiant by

focusing on the interests of her subjects, and the English ...view middle of the document...

The Seventeenth century was an era of Military revolution for Europeans; new tactics

were adopted to organize troops, advance weapons were developed, and talented military

leaders were born. This era gave birth to military geniuses, Maurice of Nassau, who

succeeded against the Spanish using flexibility and mobility, Gustavus Adolphus, a

remarkable General at the battlefront who introduced to the Swedish, and to the world a

military enrollment program, Conscription, which enable him to have citizens serve

willingly. Gustavus also presented the Salvo technique, by which his troops were

arranged to fire their musketeer simultaneously, and Oliver Cromwell of England who

won many wars in Austria and with alliances formed with France against Spain.

England was desperate for a social and political change in the Seventeenth century,

so as other Europeans countries due to burdens of war, taxation, and powerful central

governments (1640 and 1650). The gentry played an ambitious role in England demand

for social change, having gained success from agriculture, and crown offices bought from

the English government during times of war, these upcoming low class citizens wanted

their voices hear and respected in public matters. The English Economy began to take

good course under Queen Elizabeth’s reign; with helped from leaders in the Royal court

traders, and Merchants improved the economy. Between 1540 and 1680 England had

gained commercial routes across Europe and part of Asia to sell its domestic

manufactured products, and also created a major shipbuilding industry. After the reign of

Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, her successor James I took over a huge debt that accumulated

during England defensive war against Spain. The new King needed taxation to pay off

the debts, but with three-quarters of the Commons being gentry who wanted changes

made to the Royal policy, posed challenges first between Parliament and James I (r.

1603-1625), and after, between Parliament and Charles I (r. 1625-1649). These political

disagreements finally led to England’s Civil War in 1640. The Lord Protector, Oliver

Cromwell gained power after agreeing to execute Charles I in 1649. Oliver Cromwell and

the Rump Parliament also had dispute over political reforms; so Cromwell, a religious

freedom fighter end up ruling England by military dictatorship (r. 1653-1658). Similar to

England, after the death of Ivan IV, his appointed guardian Boris Godunov, who acted as

regents over the young Crown Fedor I, became a fierce leader who denies peasants rights

and introduced serfdom in Russia. The Russians spawned resentments against Boris

domestic and foreign policies, money was spent on unsuccessful invasions. Boris gained

total power when Fedor I died 1598. Between 1604 and 1613 the Russian nobles, boyars,

became...

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