Engendering Change: Organization Dynamics and Workplace Gender Desegregation 1975 – 2005
Matt L. Huffman University of California – Irvine
Philip N. Cohn University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill
Jessica Pearlman University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill
2010 by Johnson Graduate School, Cornell University.
The segregation of jobs and occupations is a persistent feature of the labor market and the proximate cause of many forms of gender inequality
* The negative effects of gender segregation on women’s labor market opportunities such as lower wages and lower chance to get promoted to higher positions.
Many studies showed the relationship between the ...view middle of the document...
Size increases the both Bureaucratization and Formalization
* Formalization may trump bureaucratization and differentiation, which might otherwise reinforce existing segregation patterns
Hypothesis 2 : The positive relationship between women’s representation in management and the level of gender integration will be stronger in growing establishments.
Growth creates opportunities for both internal and interfirm mobility and reduces the tendency for the best jobs to be reserved for members of the most favored group, which should hasten gender integration.
* Growth allows them to hire workers who are less experienced in gender-typical jobs
* Growth offers opportunities to move into positions that are not yet gender-typed within the organization.
Women have been more affected by the downsizing and contraction than men.
Hypothesis 3 : The positive effect of women in management on the level of gender desegregation will decrease over time.
The effect of women’s access to organizational power structures on gender desegregation is likely to be time dependent.
* The gender gap has declined over time
* Title inflation ; the increase in women’s representation in positions of authority has resulted from a widespread proliferation of low-status managerial jobs.
A warning effect of women on management on desegregation.
Data : from the 1975 ~ 2005 Unite States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC), drawn from EEO-1 reports filed by those private-sector employers, as mandated by Title 7 of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
* The EEO-1 reports provide the sex and racial ethnic composition of nine occupational categories within each establishment. These categories include officials and managers, professionals, technicians, sales workers, office and clerical workers, craft workers, operatives, laborers, and service workers.
* The EEO-1 reports describe individual workplace(establishment), rather than companies. For example, each outlet in a department store chain has its own report. Therefore, we did not test effects of company characteristics.
The index of dissimilarity (D) to measure establishment-level gender segregation among non-managerial workers in each workplace.
D = [0.5 X ∑ | Mi - Fi | ] x 100
* 100 = complete segregation
The percentage of female officials and managers in each workplace
The workplace size with the natural logarithm of the total number of workers
The mean annualized growth rate of each establishment’s total employment over the previous four-year period.
* Although the representation of women in management increased in each 10 year period, the improvement was greatest between 1975 and 1986.
* Despite incontrovertible progress, almost half of worker (45%) remain in workplace with less than 30 percent female management