Congestive heart failure
* The inability of the heart to pump enough blood throughout the body (decreased cardiac output) to maintain well-being
* Can be caused by a MI
* A life threatening complication of left-sided congestive heart failure
* When large amounts of fluid and blood accumulate in the lungs, causing the alveoli to fill up and air exchange to be nonexistent
* A syndrome that occurs from the progressive inability of heart to pump enough blood to meet body’s oxygen and nutrient needs
* Causes are
* Coronary artery disease
* Heart valve problems
* Increased ...view middle of the document...
If the valve doesn’t close properly blood backs up (valvular insufficiency) – failure of the valves to close completely.
* Blood flow from left atrium into left ventricle is obstructed causing the left atrium to enlarge and increase the pressure
* Signs and symptoms
* A murmur, pulmonary symptoms can then progress, fatigue, activity intolerance, and palpations
* Is aimed at reducing the workload of the heart and may include surgical interventions to provide adequate blood flow
* Digitalis – to improve cardiac concertation and treat atrial fibrillation – HIGH RISK BLOOD CLOTS – KNOW!
* Inflammation of the pericardium
* Chest pain
* Substernal, radiates, sharp, and grating increases with deep inspirations
* An inflammation of the heart muscle
* Treatment – “no cure”
* An inflammation of the valves and lining of the heart
* Signs and symptoms
* Fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weakness
What is the cardiac cycle?
* P wave – atrial contraction
* QRS – ventricle contraction
* T wave – Resting
Understanding EKG graphs
* Each dash on the top represents 3 seconds
* Count the complete cycles in the 6 seconds x 10 = HR/min
* Sinus rhythm = a regular heartbeat that originates in the SA node which is the pacemaker of the heart
* NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM – rhythm is regular : rate is 60-100
* SINUS BRADYCARDIA – rhythm is regular : rate is below 60
* SINUS TACHYCARDIA – rhythm is regular : rate is above 100 below 160
Premature atrial contractions (PCA)
* Early beat – the atrial fires and...