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Emergence Of Media Essay

1703 words - 7 pages

Introduction to Mass Communication – MCM 101

LESSON 14 EMERGENCE OF PRINT MEDIA AROUND THE WORLD As if the world was just waiting a breakthrough in the printing process, people from advance countries started exploiting the new invention to vent their feeling on both religious as well as secular matters. Next hundred years saw a change the world had perhaps not witnessed in the previous thousand years. More opinions were brought forward, the role of gatekeepers in the world of information was reduced considerably and new idea-exchange programs started getting very popular all over. Though it was not the way it appears today, the pioneer work in print as a medium to spread information ...view middle of the document...

In the subcontinent the print media surfaced because of the foreign rulers. India did not know about printing or mass communication by the middle of 18th century. Since the influence of the English rulers was more in the south India, most early papers also appeared in the southern cities before the print medium came to western and northern parts. Colonial journalism The history of media in united India is colored by the colonial experience. William Bolts, an exemployee of the British East India Company attempted to start the first newspaper in India in 1776. Bolts had to beat a retreat under the disapproving gaze of the Court of Directors of the Company. Bengal The Hickey's Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertiser was started by James Augustus Hickey in 1780 and is regarded as the first regular publication from the Indian soil. The Gazette, a two-sheet newspaper, specialized in writing on the private lives of the Sahibs of the Company. He dared even to mount

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Introduction to Mass Communication – MCM 101


scurrilous attacks on the Governor-General, Warren Hastings', wife, which soon landed him in hot waters. Hickey was sentenced to a 4 months jail term and Rs.500 fine, which did not deter him. After a bitter attack on the Governor-General and the Chief Justice, Hickey was sentenced to one year in prison and fined Rs.5, 000, which finally drove him to penury. These were the first tentative steps of journalism in India. Calcutta B.Messink and Peter Reed were pliant publishers of the India Gazette, unlike their infamous predecessor. The colonial establishment started the Calcutta Gazette. It was followed by another private initiative the Bengal Journal. The Oriental Magazine of Calcutta Amusement, a monthly magazine made it four weekly newspapers and one monthly magazine published from Calcutta, now Kolkata. Madras (Chennai) The Madras Courier was started in 1785 in the southern stronghold of Madras, which is now called Chennai. Richard Johnson, its founder, was a government printer. Madras got its second newspaper when, in 1791, Hugh Boyd, who was the editor of the Courier quit and founded the Hurkaru. Tragically for the paper, it ceased publication when Boyd died within a year of its founding. It was only in 1795 that competitors to the Courier emerged with the founding of the Madras Gazette followed by the India Herald. The latter was an "unauthorised" publication, which led to the deportation of its founder Humphreys. The Madras Courier was designated the purveyor of official information in the Presidency. In 1878, The Hindu was founded, and played a vital role in promoting the cause of Indian independence from the colonial yoke. It's founder, Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, was a lawyer, and his son, K Srinivasan assumed editorship of this pioneering newspaper during for the first half of the 20th century. Today this paper enjoys the highest circulation in South India, and is among...

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