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Ellastisitas Harga Permintaan Essay

796 words - 4 pages

UTS 2006/2007

a. Jelaskan konsep elastisitas dibawah ini:

1] Apa yang dimaksud dengan Price elasticity of demand ? dan jelaskan faktor yang mempengaruhi elastisitas suatu komoditi

Elastisitas harga permintaan (elasticity of demand) adalah ukuran yang menunjukkan seberapa banyak jumlah yang diminta atas suatu barang, berubah mengikuti perubahan harga barang tersebut. Ukuran ini dinyatakan sebagai persentase perubahan kuantitas yang dimina dibagi persentase perubahan harga. Permintaan atas suatu barang dikatakan elastiS jika kuantitas yang diminta berubah secara substansial akibat perubahanharganya. Sebaliknya, permintaan dikatakan tidak elastiS atau inelastic jika ...view middle of the document...

Tentu saja, apakah suatu barang/jasa tergolong kebutuhan atau barang mewah tidak didasarkan pada sifat intrinsik barang/jasayang bersangkutan, melainkan lebih pada preferensi konsumen. Untuk seorang pelaut yang tidak pernah memusingkan kesehatannya, mungkinsaja perahu layar merupakan kebutuhan dengan permintaan inelastis, sedangkan berobat ke dokter terasasebagai kemewahan dengan permintaan elastic.

3) Rentang waktu

Dalam rentang waktu yang lebih panjang, permintaan berbagai barang cenderung elastic. Kalau harga bensin nik, permintaan bensin hanya turun sedikit pada bulan-bulan pertama. Namun pada waktu-waktu selanjutnya, orang akan membeli mobil yang lebihhemat bensin, berganti ke kendaraan umum, atau pindah rumah ke tempat yang lebih dekat dengan kantor. Dalam beberapa tahun kuantitas permintaan bensin akan turun drastis.

4) Proporsi (persentase) kenaikan harga terhadap pendapatan konsumen

Semakin besar proporsi kenaikan harga terhadap pendapatan seseorang/konsumen, semakin elastic permintaan barang itu, dan sebaliknya. Kenaikan harga garam 70% dalam nilai nominal paling hanya Rp 3.000,00 dan jumlah itu hanya merupakan proporsi yang sangat kecil dari pendapatan konsumen, sehingga tidak sampai menyebabkan mereka mengurangi jumlah pembeliannya. Demikian pula bila harga garam didiskon 70%, tidak lantas menyebabkan orang akan memborong garam, karena nilai penurunan harganya (walaupun sebesar 70%) sangat kecil dalam nilai nominal. Namun kenaikan harga mobil sebesar 5%, dalam nilainominal bisa sampai Rp 10 juta, dan angka tersebut merupakan proporsi yang cukup besar bagi pendapatan konsumen pada umumya.

5) Definisi pasar

Elastisitas permintaan di setiap pasar juga tergantung pada batas pasarnya. Sebagai contoh, jika pasarnya kecil atau terbatas, permintaannya cenderung lebih elastic ketimbang jika pasarnya besar karena dalam pasar yang kecil konsumen lebih mudah menemukan barang substitusi. Pasar makanan misalnya, memiliki permintaan yang inelastic karena makanan dalam pengertian umum tidak memiliki substitusi. Sedangkan pasar es krim yang pasarnya sempit, permintaannya lebih elastic karna mudah mengganti es krim dengan...

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