POL 300 – International Relations
June 3, 2012
Eisenhower “Revised” Introduction
In the United States, the term "doctrine" has been applied to a particular set of presidential statements, usually consisting only of several sentences. (Micheals, 2011)Presidential doctrines have also been defined as "a grand strategy or a master set of principles and guidelines controlling policy decisions. (Micheals, 2011)
Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890 in Denison, Texas and raised in Kansas. He was born to a poor family and attended public schools his entire ...view middle of the document...
(Chester J. Pach) It envisioned smaller conventional forces, backed up by massive nuclear deterrence. (Dwight D Eisenhower) The assumption was that the United States would respond to any attack with nuclear weapons. (Dwight D Eisenhower) The goal was to keep pressure on the Soviet Union, further evidence of this goal can be found in the Eisenhower Doctrine.
On January 5, 1956, President Eisenhower addressed a special message to Congress on the policy of the United States in the Middle East countries. Soviet’s had intention on expanding communism to the Middle East. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism." (United States Department of State) The U.S. House of Representatives quickly endorsed the new policy; it was not until the 9 of March, and after intense deliberation, that the Senate passed the "Middle East Resolution." (Micheals, 2011)
The Eisenhower Administration's decision to issue this doctrine was motivated in part by an increase in Arab hostility toward the West, and growing Soviet influence in Egypt and Syria following the Suez Crisis of 1956. (United States Department of State) The Eisenhower Doctrine also sought to contain the radical Arab nationalism of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and to discredit his policy of "positive neutrality" in the Cold War, which held that Arab nations were entitled to enjoy profitable relations with both Cold War blocs. (Yaqub, 2003) Through economic aid, military aid, and explicit guarantees of American protection, the administration hoped to encourage such governments to side openly with the West in the Cold War, thus isolating Nasser and his regional allies, among them the Syrian government and Nasserist opposition parties in other Arab countries. (Yaqub, 2003)
American presidents have had a penchant for enunciating foreign policy "doctrines" or claiming as their own the label of "doctrine" that others have given a particular policy statement they had made. (Micheals, 2011) But, there is no evidence that Eisenhower had intended for his Middle East speech to be cast as a "doctrine," a label that was given to the speech by the press. (Micheals, 2011) However, as will be shown, the fact that the speech was labeled a "doctrine" had important ramifications for U.S. policy that might not have existed absent the label. (Micheals, 2011)
Eisenhower “Doctrine in Practice”
The United States first invoked the Eisenhower Doctrine in the Jordanian crisis of April 1957, and again in August 1957 when a perceived Syrian‐Soviet rapprochement threatened the stability of the region. (Chambers, 2000) But the first real test of the Eisenhower Doctrine came in 1958 in Lebanon, President Camille Chamoun, requested...