Trials recorded before and after of agars (starch) in different concentration of amylase
Diameter of iodine circles (mm) in different concentrations
0 M 0.1 M 1 M 10 M
Trials Before (after 24h)
1 15 35 40 45
2 15 40 43 47
3 15 41 44 48
4 15 39 45 47
5 15 42 43 50
Average (mm) 15 39.4 43 51.4
Standard Deviation 0 ± 2.7 ± 1.87 ± 1.82
After (after 96h)
1 15 40 42 47
2 15 34 40 50
3 15 40 41 45
4 15 38 37 53
5 15 42 40 55
Average (mm) 15 38.8 40 50
0 ± 3.03 ± 1.87 ± 4.12
Amylase is milky white in color
Petri Dishes contains condensed vapor on the lid
Lots more condensed vapor after taking out of incubator
Majority of the area is ...view middle of the document...
A sample of trial 2 (96H) shows how I worked out the standard deviation
Mean: (40 + 34 + 40 + 38 + 42)/5 = 38.8 mm
√[(40 - 38.8)^2 + (34 - 38.8)^2 + (40 - 38.8)^2 + (38 - 38.8)^2 + (42 - 38.8)^2] = 3.03 mm
In this experiment, we will try to understand how enzymes affect the rate of reactions, specifically looking at the digestion of amylase.
First of all, we need to understand the process of enzymes and how it functions as a catalyst.
Enzymes are globular proteins which acts as catalysts mainly to speed up or decrease certain biochemical reactions. In biological terms, it is what we call Metabolism - the chemical reactions in a cell. Metabolism consists of anabolic and catabolic reactions which require enzymes to function. Anabolic reactions are the synthesis of energy and proteins while catabolic reactions are the breaking down of certain compounds. Enzymes function by lowering the activation energy of the substrate by binding to the active site so reaction can result in the product quicker.
The induced fit model, which explains the enzyme process of altering the active site to fit the substrate
All living things in the world rely on enzymes to survive. This is because our body is in constant need of energy and certain chemicals to keep functioning, without enzymes to speed up reactions and produce these essential chemicals, reactions would be much too slow to keep up with our bodies and finally collapse. Apart from enzyme usage in living bodies, it is also used in industries to create useful products such as using enzymes to tan leather and to coagulate milk to transform into cheese. However, in order to use these enzymes, they can only work as certain levels of pH values and temperatures, if it crosses the optimum range, enzymes begin to denature, which renders it useless because it changes the active site. The optimum pH an average enzyme is roughly 7.3 - 7.4, while the optimum temperature (in a human body) is about 37 degrees celsius. While enzymes carry out much important work, they cannot be stressed with too much environmental changes. Minimal alteration of the pH and temperature may drastically affect enzyme activity as they are quite sensitive.
The pros of enzymes are that they are reusable and reversible in reactions, this is very convenient however enzyme denaturing can become a huge negative impact on the human body.
The aim is to investigate the affects of different concentrations of amylase (enzyme) on the breakdown starch. In the following data from the graph and table, as expected, had a positive trend. Lower reaction rates at lower concentration levels while a higher rate of reaction at higher concentration levels of amylase. As seen from the table, trials without amylase had a diameter of 15 mm, trials with 0.1M amylase had an average of 39.4 while the highest concentration trial of 10M had a...