Quality Asurance: A Practical Solution To Examination Malpractices In Nigerian
Department of Educational Management,
Faculty of Education,
University of Ilorin
This paper focuses on quality assurance as a solution to examination malpractices in Nigerian
secondary schools. An examination is an instrument for decision-making on the performance and
consequently the job opportunity and educational advancement for an individual. Therefore, many
examinees would want to pass by all means, their abilities notwithstanding. Examination malpractice
occurs every year and it seems to have defied solutions. It has negative consequences on the examinees
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The outcome of the examination is used as a basis for decision-making on the
examinee’s ability. The examinee is consequently awarded a certificate which could qualified
him for admission into a school, promotion into higher level of an institution and
employment opportunities. However, many decisions, which emanate from examinations
may not be valid due to involvement of examinees in malpractices. When such decisions are
upheld, the certificate awarding institutions would be promoting and graduating incompetent
personnel who would not be able to contribute positively national development. Malpractice
occurs in both internal and external assessment of educational outcome. It is a problem
which has been afflicting the education system for many years. It seems to have defied
solutions, as all antidotes applied so far have been faulted by fraudsters. In fact, it constitutes
the most serious problem facing Nigerian education system in general and secondary
education in particular (Obe, 1998; Adesina, 2005). Therefore, there is a need to sanitize the
nation’s education by getting rid of examination malpractices. This is a challenge to the
administrators of education within and outside the school system. In this paper, quality
assurance is examined as a practical solution to examination malpractices.
International Journal of African & African American Studies
Vol. V, No. 2, Jul 2006
The following terms are defined as used in this paper.
Quality: Something good, ideal, or of high standard.
Quality Assurance: Consistent provision and utilization of good and high standard
resources to foster effective teaching and learning, in every stage and aspect of the
educational system. Quality assurance is meaningful when application of its strategy is not
deferred till the end of an educational programme.
Examination: Test, assessment, evaluation. It is “an instrument for assessing individuals’
skills and knowledge in general, and specific areas of studies, and overall academic
achievements” (Adekale, 1993, p.20).
Examination Malpractice: ‘A misconduct or improper practice before, during or after any
examination by the examinees or others with a view, to obtaining good results, by fraudulent
means’ (Obe, 1998, p.36).
Input: Human and non-human resources provided into an organization from the beginning
of a programme to the implementation stage and to the end of the programme.
Process: Activities such as teaching, learning, and counseling, in which personnel in the
educational institutions engage.
An examination, which can be in essay or objective type, oral or written, theory or
practical, constitutes an integral part of the education process. It is conducted in order to
determine the extent to which knowledge and skills have been acquired. Based on
examination results, decision could be taken on admission into educational institutions and
employment in the labour market.