China is known for its rich cultural history, large population and some of the grandest mountain ranges in the biosphere. This country is the third largest continent and contains the world's largest population. It is also home to one of the very first recorded civilizations. Thanks to its vast mountains, it is rich in natural resources that have come up from the earth. China produces a large variety of things from steel, to cameras and synthetic materials. Since the beginning of time, China has risen significantly in all aspects of life through agriculture, politics, economics, and population. The rapid development of such country has attracted worldwide attention in recent years.
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26 percent, of which 118831709 persons were in the age group of 65 and over, accounting for 8.87 percent. As compared with the results of the 2000 population census, the share of people in the age group of 0-14 was down by 6.29 percentage points, that of the age group of 15-59 was up by 3.36 percentage points, that of the age group of 60 and over was up by 2.93 percentage points, and that of the age group of 65 and over was up by 1.91 percentage points. Of the population enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 261386075 persons lived in places other than the towns (townships or streets) of their household registration where they had left for over 6 months. Of this total, 39959423 were persons with current residence different from the place of their household registration in the same city, and the remaining were 221426652 persons. Compared with the 2000 population census, population in this category increased by 116995327 persons, or up by 81.03 percent (China, 2012).
China is a country with a large population but less arable land. With only 7 percent of the world’s cultivated land, China has to feed one fifth of the world’s population. Therefore, China’s agriculture is an important issue and draws wide attention of the world. Some foreigners once raised the question, “Who will feed China?” China leaders and agricultural experts’ reply was, “We Chinese will feed ourselves” (Government, 2012).
This sector has developed rapidly since reforms in the rural areas began in 1978. The major reforms were: the household contract responsibility system, which restored to the farmers the right to use land, arrange farm work, and to dispose of their output; canceling the state market monopoly of agricultural products, and of price controls over most of agricultural and ancillary products; abolishing many restrictive policies, allowing farmers to develop diversified business and set up township enterprises so as to fire their enthusiasm for production. The reforms emancipated and developed rural productive forces, promoted the rapid growth of agriculture - particularly in grain production - and the optimization of agricultural structure. The achievements have been remarkable (Government, 2012).
In the 1990s, China's agriculture and rural economy faced unprecedented difficulties and challenges. But development momentum maintained fairly good nonetheless, with most products in surplus and supply and demand basically in balance every year. The year 2004 was a turning point, with grain production of 469.47 million tons, reversing a five-year decline. Now China leads the world in output of grain, cotton, oil plants, fruit, meat, eggs, aquatic products and vegetables (Government, 2012).
Output per capita has risen significantly. In 2004, grain output was 362 kg per capita; per capita figures for meat (pork, beef, and mutton), milk, and aquatic products were above world averages, reaching 44.6...