Economie Industrielle Essay

5610 words - 23 pages

IDRAC LYON |
Economie Industrielle |
« La production comme outil de dissuasion » |
|
Marion Tourrette |
09/05/2012 |

« Il n’est pas préférable pour une firme en situation de monopole d’utiliser son niveau de production comme outil de dissuasion car elle risque de subir des pertes, puisque la surcapacité ne confère pas une supériorité absolue aux entreprises installées. Il serait optimal pour elle d’opter soit pour un partage du marché avec la firme concurrente ou de recourir à d’autre forme de barrière à l’entrée développée dans la littérature. » |








Introduction 3

I. Définition des termes 5

II. Niveau de production comme outil de ...view middle of the document...

Il existe cependant de nombreux marchés qui présentent quelques obstacles ne facilitant pas cette entrée.
Depuis de nombreuses décennies, un débat s’est engagé sur la définition du terme « barrières à l’entrée », mais ce débat est loin d’être clos. Selon certains théoriciens, il se peut qu’un obstacle ne soit pas nécessairement une barrière à l’entrée. En effet, c’est applicable dans le cas où les entreprises en place doivent elles même l’affronter lorsqu’elle cherchent à dominer le marché. Pour d’autres, au contraire, une « barrière » signifie un obstacle qui ne permet pas l’entrée et donc a pour effet de réduire ou de limiter la concurrence.
Il convient donc déjà de savoir identifier ce qu’est une barrière à l’entrée. C’est aussi très important pour la politique publique. Jusqu’à aujourd’hui, les économistes n’ont pas réussi à atteindre de consensus sur la définition de ce concept, ce qui a eût notamment pour conséquence quelques confusions dans les milieux juridiques. C’est le duo Bain et Stigler qui est à l’origine de cette confusion, ce conflit a été rendu célèbre.
Le concept de marché contestable quant à lui, peut être rattaché à la notion de barrière à l’entrée. En effet, en l’absence de barrières à l’entrée et à la sortie, le marché devient alors un marché contestable. Cela signifie que l’exercice d’un « pouvoir de marché » par les entreprises déjà installée se voit la possibilité d’être contesté par d’autres entreprises qui ne font pas partie du marché. En entrant librement sur le marché, ces dernières on la possibilité de proposer des prix inférieurs et donc de pouvoir capter ainsi une partie des profits des entreprises déjà présentes.
Sur ce type de marché les entreprises doivent alors, à cause de la concurrence potentielle, pratiquer des prix bas. C’est alors que même lorsqu’une entreprise est en situation de monopole, elle peut se retrouver avec un pouvoir de marché fortement diminué. Par contre, tout ce qui œuvre à bloquer la libre entrée sur le marché ou à augmenter les coûts de sortie, a pour but de renforcer le pouvoir de marché des entreprises déjà présentes. C’est en partie pour cela que les autorités de la concurrence accordent beaucoup d’attention à la présence barrières à l’entrée sur les marchés.
D’après des écrits il existe deux sortes de barrières à l’entrée : Tout d’abord des barrières naturelles qui sont liées à la nature des produits vendus ou bien à leur mode de production. Il existe aussi des barrières stratégiques à l’entrée, qu’il conviendra d ‘étudier dans ce dossier car il est un des facteurs structurels clés permettant d’expliquer les comportements et les performances des entreprises. On peut donc dire que les barrières stratégiques sont le fruit d’un plan stratégique.
Il ne conviendra donc pas d’analyser les différentes barrières à l’entrée, mais d’étudier s’il est préférable pour une entreprise d’utiliser son niveau de production comme barrière à l’entrée. Autrement dit ce dossier poser la...

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