1905 - First Liberal Movements
• ‘Bloody Sunday’: Workers wanted an improvement of their living conditions and claimed the necessity of a National Constituent Assembly. They went out to the front of the palace and showed their disagreement with the Tsar.
• Tsar Nicholas II ordered his army to shoot against those people but, because of the population pressure, he had to create a parliament.
The Parliament (Duma) had three parties:
• The Constitutional Democratic Party – Kadett;
• The Socialist Party – Mensheviks;
• The Social Democratic Party - Bolsheviks.
However, despotism remained in the Soviet ...view middle of the document...
• To remove the population’s resistance against Communism and to oppress the enemies of the revolution, Lenin creates the Tcheka (Bolshevik Secret Police).
• In December of 1917, the Bolshevik Party loses the elections and ends up with the parliament.
• The climate of oppression intensified.
1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
• At the end of the First World War, with the surrender of Germany, it was signed a peace treaty between Germany and Russia.
Civil War (1918-1921)
War between the Tsarists (coalition between the liberal and royalist) – White Army – and the Bolsheviks lead by Trotsky – Red Army.
• Lenin starts the first phase of the implementation of Communism called the “War Communism” that it’s based on: the abolition of private property, the abolition of free trade, the implementation of social equality, etc.
• However, when put in to practice it didn’t have the expected success and there was a dramatic decrease of the land’s cultivation.
• So, Lenin creates the New Economic Policy (NEP).
• NEP adopted and reformed the Russian economy to achieve a smoother transition to a society without classes.
• It reinstalled some private property and gave incentives for production.
• Thus, the Russian economy started to grow again.
• However, NEP created ideological conflicts within the Communist leadership because had as a consequence the creation of social inequality.
Civil War End
• Bolcheviks victory;
• 1922: Formation of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics);
• 1924: Death of Lenin without defining his successor;
• Stalin starts eliminating his opponents.
1928 – Beginning of “The Great Terror” of Stalin
Stalin takes control over USSR:
• Total nationalization of the economy;
• End of the NEP;
• Creation of Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes – collective and State farms;
• Prohibition to sell agricultural products in towns (making people die of hunger);
• Creation of Gulag – prisons, like concentration camps, where prisoners had to work for the State;
• Five Year Plans: there was not a market with supply force. Everything was controlled and planned by the State every 5 years.
In 1930s, USSR became a relevant potency in the industrial, political and military world. USSR was prepared to expand Communism around the world.
Second World War
• Beginning of the Second World War – Hitler invades Poland.
• “Operation Barbarrosa” – Hitler invades USSR, breaking the treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
• The Soviets expelled the Germans and tracked them till Berlin participating in the liberation of Europe.
• Because of the Soviet contribution to the allies victory, the United States and Great Britain gave a part of German to the USSR.
• The Western demands free...