Economic Ecology Essay

2104 words - 9 pages

El debate que comprende la interacción entre comercio internacional, medio ambiente y desarrollo sustentable se ha intensificado debido a la combinación de dos procesos casi simultáneos: la preocupación por el medio ambiente y la liberalización del comercio internacional.

Los síntomas de degradación ambiental son alarmantes: los bosques tropicales están desapareciendo a una tasa anual de 17 millones de hectáreas, que corresponde a un área equivalente a cuatro veces el tamaño de Suiza; una superficie vegetal tan grande como Norteamérica, fue degradada por las actividades económicas entre 1945 y 1990; una veintena de países han estado consumiendo toda su agua dulce renovable anualmente, ...view middle of the document...

La estrategia usada por los países participantes en la economía mundial ha sido la liberalización comercial. Se argumenta que ello permitirá obtener un mayor crecimiento económico, y por ende, un mayor bienestar social y ambiental. La teoría clásica del comercio internacional (CI) ha impulsado este pensamiento, asumiendo que la apertura comercial permitiría un incremento de los ingresos en las economías, favoreciendo la demanda por calidad ambiental. En esta lógica, el comercio es un juego de suma positiva en términos económicos y ambientales, en el que las partes involucradas siempre resultaran beneficiadas.

Ante esta posición, ha surgido una visión reflexiva sobre los efectos que puede tener el comercio internacional sobre el ambiente: la economía ecológica (EE). Esta corriente de pensamiento concibe al sistema económico como un subsistema de la biosfera, abierto a la entrada de energía y materiales y a la salida de residuos, donde no son reconocidos por el sistema de precios del comercio internacional los costos ambientales y el agotamiento del patrimonio ecológico de los países exportadores de materias primas (Pérez, 2004). Por esta razón, para la EE el comercio internacional no es un juego de suma positiva en términos ambientales entre los participantes ya que el intercambio entre estos es económica y ecológicamente desigual.

En este contexto, la crítica ecológica al comercio internacional tiene dos horizontes: i) El cuestionamiento a las relaciones positivas entre crecimiento económico y protección ambiental (Falconi et al, 2006), y ii) El intercambio ecológicamente desigual entre países.

En el primer caso, la crítica se centra en la llamada Curva Ambiental de Kuznets (CAK), asociada esta con la noción de que el crecimiento económico -calculado en PIB por habitante- provoca una menor presión ambiental o uso de los recursos naturales en el tiempo. El principal problema que surge de esta concepción es que se admitiría la degradación ambiental con el fin de expandir la economía, donde los costos de reposición de procesos irreversibles como la pérdida de biodiversidad podrían ser infinitos.

En el segundo caso, los países del Sur se especializan en la exportación de materias primas a precios que no toman en cuenta las externalidades originadas en su extracción. Generalmente, el destino de estas exportaciones son los países del Norte, para la elaboración de productos manufacturados. Bajo esta realidad, se produce lo que se ha denominado la “deuda ecológica”, que es el costo social y ambiental generado en la producción y/o extracción de un bien y que no se refleja en el valor de la exportación del mismo (Dillon, 2000). Esta es una forma de ¨dumping ecológico”, pues las economías más extractivas son generalmente pobres e incapaces de reducir la tasa de explotación de sus recursos, tienen pocas opciones para diversificar sus exportaciones con bienes que generen menor impacto ambiental, y tienen dificultades de internalizar las...

Other Papers Like Economic Ecology

Globalization Essay

1566 words - 7 pages , the product is important for other sites. To achieve that three or more advantage to gain power vs headquarter local can setup special zone (industry zone, high tech zone, and by government subsidies and high quality of the human resources, the firm will be more close and respect local in terms of economic culture and ecology)

Tourism: Impacts on the Economy and Eco System

2129 words - 9 pages Caribbean History and Culture March 17, 2013 Tourism: Impacts on the Economy and Eco-System How is Caribbean tourism negative for their economy? How does tourism negatively impact ecology? Those are the questions I ask myself, is tourism tearing apart the Caribbean? In some ways there are both positive and negative impacts of tourism on the economy and ecology of the Caribbean. The reason this topic is worth being thoroughly

Environment And Feminism - Ecofeminist Theory And Sustainable Development

2156 words - 9 pages political concerns, a theoretical framework that encompasses a wider ideology may facilitate an understanding of the interconnectedness of ecological issues. Deep ecology, institutional environmentalism, green political theory, and possibly other schools of thought forge connections between environmental, political and social concerns. Ecofeminism emerges as an alternative theory for framing the issues and answers of sustainable development. An

Can There Be Prosperity Without Growth?

1437 words - 6 pages Prosperity without Growth (A case study for Colorful Corporations) Name: Institution: Course: Date: Introduction Issues of growth and prosperity have raised many controversies among policy makers. Growth in the economy has been associated with strong GDP levels. Nations are struggling towards achievement of economic growth. Policy makers believe that, through growth, there is prosperity, full employment, stability

Agathis Macrophylla: The Kauri Reserve On The Island Of Erromango

1321 words - 6 pages possibilities for< i> Agathis macrophylla in Vanuatu." Forest Ecology and Management 35.3 (1990): 239-247. Thomson, Lex AJ. "Agathis macrophylla (Pacific kauri)." Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands, Elevitch, CR (ed.). Holualoa, Hawaii (2006): 29-40. Tacconi, Luca, and Jeff Bennett. "Biodiversity conservation: the process of economic assessment and establishment of a protected area in Vanuatu." Development and change 26.1 (1995): 89-110

Impact of Urbanization

540 words - 3 pages construction of public facilities because of the Economy. This will also promote urbanization area comprehensive improvement of the environment and attract more investment, more and more concentration of the population in Hong kong. Promoting regional economic growth. Typical for example, public parks, subway, garbage disposal, the ATM. 2.2 Impact of urbanization on ecology With the process of urbanization is the consumption of resources and

The Environmental Studies

2074 words - 9 pages Integrated pest management International environmental law and policies Interview and survey methods Landscape architecture Landscape ecology Natural history Planning Pollution chemistry Range management Recycling Religion and the environment Restoration ecology Risk assessment Rural sociology Soil ecology Sustainable agriculture Sustainable economic development Sustainable exploitation of natural resources Water policy Watershed management

Prosperity Without Growth

2019 words - 9 pages sustainable economy. The research has been undertaken at the request of the CEO and uses academic literature as its backbone. Overall the report found that there are many factors that are consistent with a sustainable economy with the following being researched: science & technology; ecology & sustainability; population, demographics, society & culture as well as economy, geopolitics & security. The report concludes that the future of the

Essays on Economy

1107 words - 5 pages development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;Appl ied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment ii) Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and

Priniciples Of Environmental Science

841 words - 4 pages course of action based on scientific evidence as well as economic and social considerations; and lastly long-term evaluation where the results to the course of action are carefully monitored. Without these principles, there would be a world of complexity and not nearly as many solutions as we have today. Aside the importance of the fundamental principles, environmental sustain ability is also very important. Sustain ability implies that the

Botany Essay

1054 words - 5 pages . [pic] www.saxifraga.de/sapmi/llartenlisten_gp.html Activity: Examine Lycopodium and identify the strobilus, roots, stems, and leaves. Phylum Moniliophyta, Subphylum Psilophyta (Whisk Ferns) Whisk ferns do not have any economic importance but are interesting to botanists because they resemble the first vascular plants that colonized earth. Activity: Examine

Related Essays

Mary Daly Eco Feminist Essay

313 words - 2 pages Eco-feminist principles refer to principles derived from the concept of eco-feminism. Eco-feminism refers to the union of radical ecological movement that seeks to champion the civil rights of women (Gregory and Giancola 378). Ecology is the study of living organism in relation to the environmental systems such as social ecology and economic ecology. Social ecology explores the symbolic, psychological, and ethical issues affecting the

Social Ecology Focusing On Murray Bookchin

2244 words - 9 pages that nearly all our present ecological problems arise from deep-seated social problems." Our present ecological problems cannot be clearly understood without resolutely dealing with problems in society. Economic, ethnic, cultural, and gender conflicts lie at the core of the most serious ecological dislocations we face today - apart from those that are produced by natural catastrophes (Bookchin, 1993). Social ecology grasps the cause of the

Business Essay

3133 words - 13 pages the very beginning in order to help things improve for the bottom line. One of the interesting things that we have learned throughout our reading and research is that this human ecology has even helped us to determine what economic theories are most effective. For example, based on economic understanding we have been able to understand that classical economics is not something that would be supported on a mainstream basis simply due to the

Gdgvjsfgjkdgf Essay

1253 words - 6 pages approving more timber licenseagreements. The children invoked their right to abalanced and healthful ecology and to protection by theState in its capacity as  parens patriae . The petitionersclaimed that the DENR Secretary's refusal to cancel theTLAs and to stop issuing them was "contrary to thehighest law of humankind-- the natural law-- andviolative of plaintiffs' right to self-preservation andperpetuation." The case was dismissed in the