Ecg 12 Lead Introduction Essay

1440 words - 6 pages

An Introduction to the
12 lead ECG
& Acute MI changes
a lecture for student nurses

Dr Kofi Amu-Darko
Family Physician
Charles Curtis Memorial Hospital
October 2008

By the end of this lecture, you will be able
• Understand the 12 lead ECG in relation to
the coronary circulation and myocardium
• Perform an ECG recording
• Identify the ECG changes that occur in the
presence of an acute coronary syndrome.
• Begin to recognize and diagnose an acute


What is a 12 lead ECG?
 Records the electrical activity of the heart
(depolarization and depolarization of the myocardium)
 Views the surfaces of the left ventricle ...view middle of the document...


Surfaces of the Left
 Inferior - underneath
 Anterior - front
 Lateral - left side
 Posterior - back


Inferiorand avF look UP from below to the inferior
 Leads II, III
surface of the left ventricle
 Mostly perfused by the Right Coronary Artery


Inferior Leads


Anterior Surface
 The front of the heart viewing the left ventricle and the
 Leads V2, V3 and V4 look towards this surface
 Mostly fed by the Left Anterior Descending branch of the
Left artery


Anterior Leads
 V2
 V3
 V4


Lateral Surface

 The left sided wall of the left ventricle
 Leads V5 and V6, I and avL look at this surface
 Mostly fed by the Circumflex branch of the left artery


Lateral Leads
V5, V6,

I, aVL


Posterior Surface
 Posterior wall infarcts are rare
 Posterior diagnoses can be made by looking at the anterior
leads as a mirror image. Normally there are inferior
ischaemic changes
 Blood supply predominantly from the Right Coronary





V1,V2, V3,V4

V1, V2, V3

I, AVL, V5,

ECG Waveforms

 Normal cardiac axis is downward and to the left
 ie the wave of depolarisation travels from the right
atria towards the left ventricle
 when an electrical impulse travels towards a positive
electrode, there will be a positive deflection on the
 if the impulse travels away from the positive electrode,
a negative deflection will be seen


ECG Waveforms
 Look at your 12 lead ECG’s
 What do you notice about lead avR?
 How does this compare with lead V6?


An Introduction to the
12 lead ECG
Part II


Basic electrocardiography

Heart beat originates in the
SA node
Impulse spreads to all parts of
the atria via internodal
ATRIAL contraction occurs
Impulse reaches the AV node
where it is delayed by
Impulse is conducted rapidly
down the Bundle of His and
Purkinje Fibres
VENTRICULAR contraction

•The P wave represents atrial depolarisation
•the PR interval is the time from onset of atrial activation to onset of
ventricular activation
•The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarisation
•The S-T segment should be iso-electric, representing the ventricles
before repolarisation
•The T-wave represents ventricular repolarisation
•The QT interval is the duration of ventricular activation and recovery.

ECG Abnormalities
Associated with ischaemia


Ischaemic Changes

S-T segment elevation
S-T segment depression
Hyper-acute T-waves
T-wave inversion
Pathological Q-waves
Left bundle branch block


ST ST segment represents period between ventricular
 The
depolarisation and repolarisation.
 The ventricles are unable to receive any further stimulation
 The ST...

Other Papers Like Ecg 12 Lead Introduction

Frog Heart Essay

2063 words - 9 pages Force Transducer (Figure 4). Reduce the slack in the thread by adjusting the micropositioner on your mounting stand. Note: Do not over-tighten the thread! Doing so can damage the heart. 8. Attach the MLA1605 Lead Wire Alligator Clips to the frog to record the ECG. Positive: Left forelimb; Negative: Right forelimb; Earth: Right hindlimb. Exercise 1: Recording baseline heart rate and ECG 1. In Chart, click the Start button and

Business Managemnt Essay

2654 words - 11 pages electrocardiogram (ECG) called the Mac 400. International | Jun 26th, 16:15 The device is a masterpiece of simplification. Terror in the Middle East: A bloody day The multiple buttons on conventional ECGs Middle East and Africa | Jun 26th, 16:12 have been reduced to just four. The bulky printer has been replaced by one of those tiny gadgets used in portable ticket Terrorism in France: Ever grislier machines. The whole thing is

How to Use a 5-Level Triage System

1047 words - 5 pages How to Use a 5-level Triage System Western Governors University Topic: The importance and application of a 5-level triage system. INTRODUCTION Attention Getter: I am currently a Charge Nurse in the busiest emergency room in Nevada. We see an average of 300 patients a day with wait time in the lobby upwards of 12-14 hours. Purpose: The purpose of my presentation is to inform. I want my audience to understand why a 5-level

Health Care Innovation

853 words - 4 pages have made an impact in several disciplines including but not limited to laparoscopy, orthopedic surgery, spinal surgery, neurosurgery, emergency response, and prostate surgery. (Beasley, 2012) The first published account of the use of a robot in human surgery was for a brain biopsy with combined with a computed tomography (CT) and a stereotactic frame in 1985. (Beasley, 2012) The introduction of robotics in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is

Acute Care

3142 words - 13 pages ACUTE CARE ASSIGNMENT Introduction For this assignment I have chosen to use a patient on a Medical Rehab Ward that became acutely unwell very suddenly and was eventually diagnosed with Urinary Sepsis before being transferred to an Acute Medical Ward for further treatment. The purpose of this assignment is to show how I as the nurse, managed the situation in the assessing of the patient from the onset of their symptoms using the Airway

Heart Attacks in Youth

981 words - 4 pages excessive consumption of sugars as well as soft drinks, has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients” (Langston, 2011. Para 8). The higher fat intake could lead to a great risk of heart disease. “The most common cause of sudden death among individuals 12-32 year olds is Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the second most common cause is Cogenital coronary

Abcde Assessment Case Study

1071 words - 5 pages the UK. Any patients complaint of chest pain should be took seriously and investigated accordingly (Kelly, 2004). Prior to beginning an assessment the patient should immediately begin bed rest, as this will assist in lowering the cardiac workload. A 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) should be attached to the patient to take a trace of the patients heart along with taking observation and recording patients vital signs (including heart rate, blood

Case Study 1 for Patho 2

1096 words - 5 pages from his walkway. He had experienced chest discomfort with activity previously, but the pain had subsided with rest and he sought no medical help. This time the pain did not subside and became increasingly severe, radiating to his left arm and lower jaw. In the emergency department, an ECG and cardiac enzymes were obtained. The cardiac monitor showed sinus tachycardia with occasional premature ventricular complexes. K.R. was treated with 2 L nasal


1143 words - 5 pages . Many cases may go unrecognized, undiagnosed, or associated with stillborn children. The mortality rate of the condition is high due to heart and vascular disorders. A Child affected with the disorder may live for about 10 to 12 years. The condition more often affects males compared to females in the ratio of 5: 1. During the infancy stage, the child may appear to be normal, but after the age of 9 months to 24 months, the child begins to

Mv Dona Paz

8494 words - 34 pages He J was notably slow in ambulation. He was said to have Am Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Aug;58(8):1431-8. chest radiograph, and left ventricular hypertrophy by 12-lead bronchial asthma at age 15 years, and since then he had been electrocardiogram (12-L increased risk and 2), normocytic taking salbutamol tablets occasionallylivesbouts likewise be for will of dyspnea contributing to the immense loss of vessels at significantly ECG) (Figures

Pre Gestational Conditions

1818 words - 8 pages blood pressure decreases that results to decreased venous return which prompts the heart to compensate to meet body’s needs by pumping harder Excessive blood loss during second stage of labor. Systemic vascular resistance drops by 25% during pregnancy lowering blood pressure. Gravid uterus can dramatically affect venous return in some positions compressing IVC and can lead to hypotension. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF HEART DISEASE

Related Essays

Acute Coronary Syndromes Essay

1858 words - 8 pages intravenous morphine should be given as required (grade D recommendation). Where appropriate, a 12-lead ECG should be taken en route and transmitted to a medical facility (grade B recommendation). Receiving medical facilities should be given warning of incoming patients in whom there is a high suspicion of ACS, particularly STEMI, or those whose condition is unstable (grade B recommendation). Where formal protocols are in place, prehospital

Bio And Electrocardiogram Essay

3302 words - 14 pages in the signal. Keywords- Classification, DFA Electrocardiogram, MIT-BIH database, Poincare, SVM , Wavelets. I. INTRODUCTION In today’s environment there has been lot of threats due to heart disease and no proper diagnosis With the recent developments in technology, physicians have powerful tools to observe the working of the heart muscle and thus to establish their diagnosis. Among cardiovascular examinations, electrocardiogram (ECG

Innovation Management Essay

3380 words - 14 pages  room  for  more  technical  advancements,  and  consequently  the   battery  to  power  the  machine,  and  the  wright  of  the  machine  coupled  with   minimal  complexity  lead  to  greater  batter  life,  and  the  team  managed  to  get  100   ECG  tests  on  a  single  charge.     The  team  was  able

Atrial Fibrillation Essay

2811 words - 12 pages Introduction For the purpose of this assignment I have chosen to review a client with atrial fibrillation in a primary care setting. I will discuss the patient’s original presentation, including analysis and interpretation of his 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG), diagnosis and subsequent management. Throughout the assignment I will discuss local and national guidelines and the evidence behind the chosen management for this client. For the