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Ebola Viral Disease: What Is To Be Done?

1952 words - 8 pages

Ebola viral disease: What is to be Done?
On March 21, 2014, there was a report of a disease that was ripping through African countries. It was soon discovered that the disease was the Ebola viral disease also known as EVD. In a matter of a few short months, the Ebola virus was reported in three of Guinea’s Conakry city districts named Gueckedou, Macenta, and Kissidougou, in Liberia’s Foya district, and in Sierra Leone (Dixon, Meredith G., and Ilana J. Schafer). On October 23, 2014, there was the first recorded Ebola case in the United States. There would be three more confirmed cases before the news would declare that the United States was Ebola-free. Those that had been infected ...view middle of the document...

The next stage of the virus comprises of blood clots in vital organs (i.e. the liver, spleen, and brain), collapse of capillaries, and hemorrhaging from all of the body’s orifices and kidney failure. Due to such damage caused by the virus, the unfortunate result for many without immediate and powerful medical care is death (Ghayourmanesh, Soraya, PhD, and H. Bradford, MD Hawley). The fatality rate has varied according to the different outbreaks over history. But in all, the past fatality rates have included eighty-eight percent in 1995, eighty-eight percent in Zaine and fifty-three percent in Sudan in 1976, seventy-one percent in 2007 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and fifty-one to fifty-nine percent in West African countries in 2014 from February to August (Dixon, Meredith G., and Ilana J. Schafer) (Ghayourmanesh, Soraya, PhD, and H. Bradford, MD Hawley) (Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (2014)). There are numerous ways to pass along the disease. The disease originates from wildlife but the host specie (the one the officially carries the disease) is not currently known. However, experts think that bats are the most likely. Their feces contaminate food and water, which the wildlife consumes. Then, people come into contact directly with the infected bat feces or indirectly through infected animals. Thus, an outbreak occurs as infected persons come into contact with others. In summary, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states:
Ebola is not spread through the air, by water, or in general, by food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for
food) and contact with infected bats. There is no evidence that mosquitos or other insects can transmit Ebola virus. Only a few species of mammals (e.g., humans, bats, monkeys, and apes) have shown the ability to become infected with and spread Ebola virus (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
It is also important to include that the disease can be transmitted even after death such as during funeral preparation (Dixon, Meredith G., and Ilana J. Schafer ). The deadly Ebola virus has been named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo where is originated (Ghayourmanesh, Soraya, PhD, and H. Bradford, MD Hawley).
A second main point is that Ebola is a recent disease with a sad history. As mentioned above, the Ebola viral disease originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa. The first case was reported to be in 1976 (Ghayourmanesh, Soraya, PhD, and H. Bradford, MD Hawley). Research would later reveal that there are four different strains of the Ebola disease and each vary in their level of deadliness. The types include the Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Reston strains. The location and history of notable Ebola virus outbreaks is as follows: 1976 in Zaire and Sudan in which four hundred and thirty-one people died, 1995 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in which two hundred...

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