Dynamic Condensation Essay

2629 words - 11 pages

Institut für Wasserkraftmaschinen und Pumpen
SE Hydraulische Energiesysteme
LVA Nr. 305.011

Das Laufrad von Peltonturbinen
(Konstruktive Lösungen)
erstellt von:

305.011 SE Hydraulische Energiesysteme

Inhaltsverzeichnis
1 2 3 Einleitung: ................................................................................................................ 3 Historischer Überblick .............................................................................................. 3 Klassische Bauweisen ............................................................................................. 5 3.1 ...view middle of the document...

Dabei wird in chronologischer Reienfolge, beginnend mit der Erfindung der Peltonturbinen durch Lester Allan Pelton, über klassische Bauweisen bis hin zu den aktuellsten Konstruktionen, vorangegangen.

2 Historischer Überblick
Der Erfinder der Peltonturbinen - Lester Allan Pelton - wurde 1829 in Vermillion, Ohio geboren. 1850 ging er während des Goldrausches nach Kalifornien und arbeitete dort als Zimmermann und Schlosser. Zu dieser Zeit gab es eine große Nachfrage nach neuen Energiequellen um die Maschinen und Mühlen zu betreiben welche nötig waren um die Stollen der Goldminen in die Berge zu treiben. Viele Minen waren von Dampfmaschinen abhängig, diese brauchten jede Menge Holz und Kohle die herbeigeschafft werden musste und Geld kostete. Wasser hingegen war im Überfluss vorhanden, schnell fließende Gebirgsbäche und Wasserfälle, ein ideales Einsatzgebiet der frühen Peltonturbinen.

Bild 1: Patentzeichnung

Die bis dahin verwendeten Wasserräder funktionierten nur in langsamen großen und voluminösen Flüssen. Peltons Erfindung begann mit einer zufälligen Beobachtung irgendwann in den 70er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts, als er ein beschädigtes Wasserrad sah, bei dem der Wasserstrahl umgelenkt, und nicht wie bei konventionellen Wasserrädern gestoppt wurde. Zu seiner Überraschung drehte sich das Rad nun schneller.

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305.011 SE Hydraulische Energiesysteme Darauf hin entwickelte Pelton seine halbschalenförmigen Schaufeln. In den Jahren 1878 und 1879 teste er Turbinen unterschiedlicher Größen. 1880 ließ er sich sein Turbinenrad patentieren, das erste Patent überhaupt für eine Wasserturbine. 1883 gewann er einen Wettbewerb der Idaho Mining Company bei dem seine Turbine einen Wirkungsgrad von 90,2% hatte, sein ärgster Mitstreiter lag mit 76,5% weit abgeschlagen dahinter. 1888 gründete er die Pelton Water Wheel Company in San Francisco und begann mit der Massenproduktion seiner neuen Turbine. In den Folgenden 115 Jahren wurde das Laufrad durch den Einsatz neuer Werkstoffe und Fertigungsverfahren, stetig weiterentwickelt. Waren es am Anfang noch vor allem die Reiterbauweise und anschließend die Monoblockguss- Räder, die den Stand der Technik darstellten, wurde in den 90-iger Jahren vor allem von den Firmen EFG (EFG Formschlussbauweise) und VA-Tech (Erfindung von HiweldTM , MicroGussTM, (1992) und FiberGussTM) die Entwicklung entscheidend vorangetrieben, um den gestiegenen Qualitätsanforderungen an die Fertigung und den geforderten niedrigeren Lieferzeiten nachzukommen. Diese neuen Entwicklungen stellen den Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit dar.

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305.011 SE Hydraulische Energiesysteme

3 Klassische Bauweisen
3.1 Reiterbauweise
Die Reiterbauweise stellt den Anfang der Peltontechnologie dar. Die Einzelschaufeln werden reiterartig auf die Scheibe aufgesetzt, wobei bei größeren Gefällen jede der Schaufeln durch mindestens 2 Passschrauben und Spannkeilen mit flachem Keil und Kegelwinkel so „verankert“ wird, dass unkontrollierbare Vorspannungen im...

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