SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPING OF DURIAN RINDS
1.1 Background of Study
Durian is a species of plant species in the genus Durio which producing aromatic fruit that can be eaten. It is very popular in Southeast Asia, where it is called the "king of fruits". Durian have a large size, unique odor, and its contents are protected by the fibrous and spiny skin. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm long and 15 cm in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms.
During the durian season, durian rinds accumulate in high piles as vendors usually remove the rinds for buyers' convenience. In addition only 30% of durian are eatable and the other part are considered as waste such as durian ...view middle of the document...
1.2 Problem Statement
The use of wood as a source of non-paper covers 10% of use around the world. However, the situation varies greatly depending on a country. For example, China is using more than 80% of paper made from bamboo, wheat straw and other non-wood fibers. By contrast, in Japan, more than 30 million tons of paper are used each year (or 250 kg per person), percentage of non-timber resources is 0.3% (Anonymous, 2001).
The demand for paper is increasing by the day, the notion that the world considers the progress of information technology will lead to the global community without paper (paperless). Referring to this situation, an alternative is needed as a new source of raw materials other than wood that has been the main source for the pulp and paper industry. The use of wood as a sustainable raw material will continue to damage the forest and thus the possibility of economic disputes of wood resources are limited.
Currently, Malaysia packaging industry used recycled paper as the main raw material for the papermaking. The problem is recycled paper has limited recycling process as it can be recycled 5 to 7 times before the fibre become shorter, stiff and difficult to collapse during papermaking process. The virgin pulp need to be added to maintain the fibre strength, but imported virgin pulp such as softwood long fibre is expensive and can contribute to the increasing of the production cost. Alternative raw material of virgin pulp is needed in contribution of enhancing the recycled paper strength.
Recently the demand for pulp has increased rapidly, especially in countries that are developing. Due to the lack of timber resources, non-wood lignocellulosic materials have been widely used as a substitute for wood for example blast in India (Mohta, D., 2001), bamboo, bagasse and rice straw in China (Zheng, 1994). In Malaysia alone, non-wood sourcing underway to replace the use of wood resources. Non-timber resources that have been commercialized previously empty fruit bunch.
Use of Durian rinds, can be...