Domains of Human Development
Zikria S. Mohammed
Oakton Community College
Development is a critical part of our life. Many of us grow but do not develop. Definition of development sates that it is a pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the lifespan. Development as a whole is divided into four ages. First age: childhood and adolescence, second stage: prime adulthood age 20-59, third stage: 60-79 years old age, fourth stage: 80 years and older (Santrock, 2013). All of the four periods of development are connected to each other.
Development is life-long process and it does not end at early adulthood; rather continues throughout one’s life. Development is ...view middle of the document...
First is the parental period which is the time from conception to birth. It is the growth from a single cell to a whole functional organism; it takes approximately 9 months or less for the completion of this period. The period of infancy is next. It is starts form the time of birth to 18 or 24 months. In this stage the infant is extremely dependent upon adults. Also, in this period the infant is facing its initial challenges of learning such as language, motor skills and sensorimotor coordination. Early childhood is the followed by infancy period. It ranges from the age of 3-5. In this period the child learns how to become self-sufficient and to take care of themselves. This period reaches an endpoint by the time the child is in first grade. Middle and Late childhood is the successor of early childhood period. It starts at the age of 6 and ends at the age of 10 or 11. Here the child is facing the challenges of mastering reading, writing and arithmetic skills. This is the period when the child is exposed to the larger world and its culture. Also, the child grasp a sense of achievement and has a higher self-control. The next period is Adolescence, this is a transition of from late childhood to early adulthood. It starts from 12 to 18 years of age. This period poses a lot of physical and emotional challenges for the child. For instance, dramatic weight gain, changes is body contour, and development of sexual characteristics; like puberty. In this period thoughts are more logical, abstract and idealistic. The following stage is early adulthood, this period begins at early 20 and lasts through 30. Here the challenges faced are very personal and dramatic. For instance, establishment of personal and economic independence, moving up in career, finding a life partner, starting a family and having kids. Next period is middle adulthood which is from the age of 40 to 60. In this period the individual feels responsible for expanding personal and social involvement. Also, at this age they tend to be role models for the younger generations and are very fond of mentoring the younger generation. Late adulthood is the last period and the longest span of development. The demographics are increasing in this period as the life expectancy is increasing. Many researches argue that even after the age of 60 there is room for development and adaptability (Santrock, 2013)
All of the periods mentioned above incorporate in development of an individual as a whole, and they all share same developmental issues. Such as, nature-nurture, stability-change and continuity-discontinuity. The issue of nature-nurture emphasizes on the development influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to the biological inheritance and nurture refers to its environmental experiences (Santrock, 2013). Today’s example for nature would be nutrition, medical care, physical health and etc. Whereas, social environment like school, family, peers, media and culture would represent the nurture...