LAW ENFORCEMENT RESPONSES TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Police respond to reports of domestic violence every single day in the U.S.
These domestic violence phone calls can come from anybody. Not only can it happen to anybody, anybody can report it, and should report it. Domestic violence has become a far more prevalent issue in recent years. With the issue of domestic violence getting more attention from the public, that also means the law has paid more attention to it as well, which shows in federal and state government statutes and training developments.
In the United States, domestic violence police calls account for about 20% of calls for crimes against women, and about 3-5% ...view middle of the document...
Forms of physical domestic abuse are kicking, biting, scratching, slapping, punching, any sort of hitting with a foreign object, choking, etc. Types of psychological abuse include the perpetrator gaining control over the victim by threatening them or their family, yelling, the use of intimidation as a means of control, the abuse of pets in order to control, and many other methods that follow. Sexual abuse can include forced sexual intercourse with a spouse or loved one in order to assert control over them. Economical abuse includes not allowing the victim to work so that they rely on the abuser for support, denying access to funds, and controlling all of the finances. Although these are not the only forms of domestic abuse, they occur more commonly than other forms. Further research will expand a list of many other ways in which victims are abused.
Why does domestic violence occur? Domestic violence mainly occurs as a means for perpetrators to assert control over their victims. Most people believe drugs, alcohol, or stress may be the reason domestic violence happens, the issue is much deeper than that. Although they may not be the reason domestic violence occurs, drugs, alcohol, and stress may bring on or escalate a domestic violence situation. Many factors are involved in which affect who, what, when, where, and why domestic abuse happens. A few theories may help us further understand why domestic abuse happens.
The most affluent theory explaining domestic violence is the Patriarchal Theory. The Patriarchal Theory justifies violence against women and children as a way for men to preserve domination and control in society. The Patriarchal Theory suggests that men maintain power and control in society by limiting women to specific roles and controlling most aspects of their lives. It appears that most of the other theories are ultimately tied to this theory in one way or another.
Sociobiological Theory attempts to explain that biological and genetic traits are inherited over time. The theory suggest that biological and genetic conditioning affect how social behaviors are learned and perceived. For example, children of criminals will inherently become criminals themselves. The use of evolutionary factors suggest that hormones affect how humans behave. The male reproductive hormone, testosterone, is linked to high aggression rates when it is elevated, which is claimed to genetically passed on through ancestors.
The Social Learning Theory which was outlined by Banduras and Walter in 1963 suggests that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context. This theory states that people will learn by observing the environment and other people around them. One determines what is right or wrong, what they can and cannot get away with, or whether or not the behavior is worth the risk or punishment by observing the consequences for such behaviors. Positive and negative reinforcement may have an...