In this paper I will explain how temperament shapes the cognitive, socio-emotional development. I will discuss various theories of human development, identify the social and emotional domains development and how they affect temperament. I will discuss the eight stages of socialization according to Eric Erikson, and the cultural perspectives of temperament.
A person’s temperament, biology, environment, and even attachment to others can affect how social the individual is. Temperament is an important aspect of emotional development. Temperament is the pattern of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual (Shriner B., & Shriner M., 2014). ...view middle of the document...
, & Shriner M., (2014). My friends’ daughter shows examples of interpreting others’ emotions. When she sees me smiling she smiles, if I frown she looks so sad it just makes me smile.
As humans, we are social beings. However, some of us are more social than others. Research shows that temperament does seem to be related to genetics, but to what degree? Kagan (2008) argues that children are born with a physiology that makes them biased toward a particular type of temperament (Shriner B., & Shriner M., (2014). An example of some being more social than others, me and my oldest son are very sociable people, while my youngest and my husband are not as sociable.
I guess my genetic temperament was passed on to my oldest and my youngest son got his father’s genetic temperament that added to the social environment they were raised in, it was very diverse. I believe that temperament has a strong role in how we are as adults. Another example is, me and my siblings grew up in the same house, same values, rules etc… yet we are like night and day.
Our socialization process consists of eight phases. According to Eric Erikson they are Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Ego Integrity vs. Despair. They all occur at different stages in our life span.
Trust vs. Mistrust- During this stage the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live. To resolve these feelings of uncertainty the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt- The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile. Between the ages of 18 months and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. I remember my son getting so independent at this stage, he wanted to walk without holding my hand, and he wanted to walk ahead of me. The child is discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys etc. I remember him saying “I can do it myself mom” Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence and autonomy.
Initiative vs. Guilt -Around age three and continuing to age five, children assert themselves more frequently. During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school. At this stage my son was the one that all the children wanted to be around. When I dropped him off at school the kids would all run to my son and follow him around.
Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority- Children are at the stage (aged 5 to 12 yrs) where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to make things on their own. Teachers begin to take an important role in the child’s...