This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Dna Computer Essay

1305 words - 6 pages

DNA COMPUTER-The Future of Computing

DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA and biochemistry and molecular biology instead of the traditional silicon based computer technologies.DNA computing or more generally molecular computing is a fast developing interdisciplinary area.

In 1994, Leonard Adleman introduced the idea of using DNA to solve complex mathematical problems. Adleman, a computer scientist at the University of Southern California, came to the conclusion that DNA had computational potential after reading the book "Molecular Biology of the Gene," written by ...view middle of the document...

So Atlanta’s last name is GCAG,whereas Boston’s first name is TCGG.Next, I gave each nonstop flight a DNA“flight number ,” obtained by concatenating the last name of the city of origin with the first name of the city of desti-nation. In the example, the Atlanta-to-Boston flight number becomes GCAGTCGG.Recall that each strand of DNA has its Watson-Crick complement. Thus, each city has its complementary DNA name. Atlanta’s complementary name becomes, for instance, TGAACGTC.After working out these encodings, I had the complementary DNA city names and the DNA flight numbers synthesized.
(As it turned out, the DNA city names themselves were largely unnecessary.) I took a pinch (about 1014 molecules) of each of the different sequences and put them into a common test tube. To begin the computation, I simply added water—plus ligase, salt and a few other ingredients to approximate the conditions inside a cell. Altogether only about one fiftieth of a teaspoon of solution was used. Within about one second, I held the answer to the Hamiltonian Path Problem in my hand.To see how, consider what transpires in the tube.
For example, the Atlanta-to-Boston flight number (GCAGTCGG)and the complementary name of Boston(AGCCTGAC) might meet by chance.By design, the former sequence ends with TCGG, and the latter starts with AGCC. Because these sequences are complementary, they will stick together . If the resulting complex now encounters the Boston-to-Chicago flight number (ACTGGGCT), it, too, will join the complex because the end of the former (TGAC) is complementary to the beginning of the latter (ACTG).In this manner,complexes will grow in length, with DNA flight numbers splinted together by complementary DNA city names. The ligase in the mixture will then permanently concatenate the chains of DNA flight numbers. Hence,the test tube contains molecules that encode random paths through the different cities (as required in the first step of the algorithm).Because I began with such a large number of DNA molecules and the problem contained just a handful of cities, there was a virtual certainty that at least one of the molecules formed would encode the Hamiltonian path. It was amazing to think that the solution to a mathematical problem could be stored in a single molecule! Notice also that all the paths were created at once by the simultaneous interactions of literally hundreds of trillions of molecules. This biochemical reaction represents enormous parallel processing.
For the map, there is only one Hamiltonian path, and it goes through Atlanta, Boston, Chicago and Detroit, in that order.Thus,the molecule encoding the solution will have the sequence GCAGTCGGACTGGGCTATGTCCGA.Unfortunately, although I held the solution in my hand, I also held about 100 trillion molecules that encoded paths that were not Hamiltonian. These had
to be eliminated. To weed out molecules that did not both begin with the start...

Other Papers Like Dna Computer

Human Genome Essay

729 words - 3 pages Cruz, and Ensembl present additional data and annotation and powerful tools for visualizing and searching it. Computer programs have been developed to analyze the data, because the data itself is difficult to interpret without such programs. The process of identifying the boundaries between genes and other features in a raw DNA sequence is called genome annotation and is the domain of bioinformatics. While expert biologists make the best

Enlgish Essay

3364 words - 14 pages Biology B     | Activity | Points | % of Total | Discuss | 75 | 4% | Exam | 100 | 5% | Final Exam | 100 | 5% | Journal | 100 | 5% | Lab | 250 | 13% | Practice | 125 | 6% | Quiz | 740 | 38% | Test (CST) | 250 | 13% | Test (TST) | 200 | 10% | | Total Points for the Course : 1940 | Unit 1: DNA and Heredity | Lesson 1.1: The Code of Life | (Documents: Key Terms) | Activity 1.1.1: Study - Organization of

The Positive And Negative Effects Of DNA Profiling

2879 words - 12 pages no previous hospitalizations, he felt cer-tain his low premiums would be a worthy investment forhis family.Weeks later, after a routine physical exam, he wasshocked by the insurance company's response. Sophisti-cated DNA testing had revealed in Frank's tissues a sin-gle missing copy of a so-called RB antioncogene and minor variations in two other genes. Computer analysis showedthe molecular misprints more than tripled his risk of getting small

Love Bug Virus

984 words - 4 pages penalties for people who create viruses. Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person. Unlike a cell, a virus has no way to reproduce by itself. Instead, a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. In some cases, the

Biological Computers

530 words - 3 pages What are Biological Computers? Biological computers are special types of microcomputers that are specifically designed to be used for medical applications. The biological computer is an implantable device that is mainly used for tasks like monitoring the body's activities or inducing therapeutic effects, all at the molecular or cellular level. | | The biological computer

Gattaca Essay

769 words - 4 pages Gattaca is a great science fiction film, and it was quite realistic. Gattaca deals with a future where parents tell the genetic traits of their child. Vincent Freeman has always fantasized about traveling into outer space, but is grounded by his status as a genetically inferior "in-valid." He decides to fight his fate by purchasing the genes of Jerome Morrow, a laboratory-engineered "valid." He assumes Jerome's DNA identity and joins the Gattaca

Genetic Engineering 3

2087 words - 9 pages Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate. The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as


1913 words - 8 pages the project, trying combinations of "simple" structuredanimals. After three weeks of work I had finally made a breakthrough. By chemicallyrestructuring the DNA of a frog and rat I had produced a tadpole with hair. I was verypleased with the results, as were the investors. They informed me, however, that such aanimal wouldn't attract enough visitors. They told me that the creatures had to be larger andmore unusual. Before they left, a white van


321 words - 2 pages The critical issues law enforcement face each day, change over time some issues are small, and some are huge. An example could be the use of technology that law enforcement agencies are using today. Some of the uses of equipment the police had years ago, now technology has made the use of such items better and more convenient like radios, cell phones, computers, cameras, the ability to do DNA testing, updated computerized finger printing, and


701 words - 3 pages ). ● – The Amatoxin being the key component we'll examine here... (Lee, MD 2012) (Santini, 2012) Now then... ● Since I like to mix it up a bit...first a few thoughts about DNA and RNA. – DNA can be described as the master blue print of a house or the initial code of a computer program; that first set of instructions, if you will. RNA is the copy, the working script as it were; now step deeper in the gene pool (oh, I have

The Chinese Room Argument

1133 words - 5 pages understands the Chinese symbols, and has the tools to translate the Chinese Symbols, doesn’t mean he actually understands the symbols. Within this argument the man represents a computer. The symbols are given to the computer, the computers programming allows the computer to translate the symbols, and the computer gives an answer. At no point does this imply the computer understands the original information it was given. The computer was simply programmed

Related Essays

Electrophoresis Lab Essay

346 words - 2 pages forensic analysis? Why is restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) commonly refered to as a “DNA fingerprint”? A restriction endonuclease “cuts” two DNA molecules at the same location. What can you assume is identical about the molecules at that location? Do any of your suspect samples appear to have EcoRI or Pstl recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the crime scene? If so which suspects and what are the band

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology Of The Gene Outline

3950 words - 16 pages , unknowingly 2 viral DNA enters the nucleus 3 It can remain dormant until the time is right 4 Then hijack the cell and use the cellular machinery for its own purpose (to reproduce of course…). 5 Cell fills with virus particles and lyses, releasing the particles to infect other cells (the sores). 3 Once infected, it remains permanently latent, integrated into the nerve cell’s DNA. 4 75% Americans carry HSV-1 and 20

Dna Storage Essay

907 words - 4 pages Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech, Watson and Crick's classic paper on the structure of DNA, and a color photograph of the European Bioinformatics Institute. In an interview with The Wall Street Journal, Nick Goldman said, "All we're doing is adapting what nature has hit upon—a very good way of storing information." Archiving digital data is one of the computer world’s great problems. Currently, the amount of data in the world is

Fingerprinting Forensics Essay

1294 words - 6 pages have many uses. To begin, Fingerprints are unique when it comes to crime detection. No two people have been found to have the same fingerprints—they are totally unique. There’s a one in a 64 billion chance that your fingerprint will match up exactly with someone else’s. Fingerprints are even more unique than DNA, the genetic material in each of our cells. Although identical twins can share the same DNA, or at least most of it they can’t have