Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1, in which there is an absolute lack of insulin due to breakdown of islet cells in thepancreas. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequent urination, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who ...view middle of the document...
Exercising regularly—like a brisk walk of 1-2 miles in 30 minutes—at least five times a week, even if that does not result in you achieving an ideal weight. That's because regular exercise reduces insulin resistance.
Eating a healthy diet.
Taking medication. The medication metformin (Glucophage) offers some additional protection for people with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes is defined as blood glucose levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL.
If you already have type 2 diabetes, you can still delay or prevent complications:
Keep tight control of your blood sugar. This reduces the risk of most complications.
Lower your risk of heart-related complications by:
Taking a daily aspirin.
Aggressively managing other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as:
High blood pressure
High cholesterol and triglycerides
Visit an eye doctor and a foot specialist every year to reduce eye and foot complications.
Diet and Exercise
In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. A healthy diet for a person with diabetes is:
Low in saturated fats and cholesterol
Without any trans fats
Low in total calories
Nutritionally balanced with abundant amounts of:
Fruits and vegetables
A daily multivitamin is recommended for most people with diabetes.
For some people, type 2 diabetes can be controlled just with diet and exercise. Even if medications are required, diet and exercise remain important for controlling diabetes.
The medications used for type 2 diabetes include pills and injections. The pills work in many different ways. They include medications that:
Reduce insulin resistance in the muscles and liver.
Increase the amount of insulin made and released by the pancreas.
Cause a burst of insulin release with each meal.
Delay the absorption of sugars from the intestine.
Slow your digestion.
Reduce your appetite for large meals.
Decrease the conversion of fat to glucose. These medications are called thiazolidinediones. One medication in this group has recently been linked to heart disease. As a result, drugs from this group are not recommended as a first choice in treatment.
Because type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, about one of three people with this disease take some form of insulin injection.
In advanced type 2 diabetes, or for people who want to tightly control glucose levels, insulin may be needed more than once per day and in higher doses.
Treatment plans that include both very long-acting insulin and very short-acting insulin are frequently the most successful for controlling blood sugar. Very short-acting insulin is used with meals, to help control the spike in blood sugar levels that occur with a meal. If a person does not eat on a regular schedule, very short-acting insulin can be particularly...