Dissecting the biases present in the political and literary perspectives regarding partition of 1947: A holistic approach incorporating an analysis of the State account to understand the political agendas, and deconstruction of Manto’s writings to comprehend the biases present in the literary arena.
The history of the partition of India has been viewed, contemplated and constructed with a variety of perspectives, each differing according to a large number of variables. These variables include the time in which the perspective was formed and documented, the side of the border at which the writer resided, the views of the resultant states and how they portrayed these views, the personal ...view middle of the document...
Moreover, it will contextualize the literary writings of Saadat Hassan Manto, with the purpose of highlighting how works of fiction cover a different perspective, and are subjective according to the context of the writers.
Since 1947, Pakistan has struggled to form an identity. Immediately after the partition, it had to authenticate and legitimize the partition, and set itself apart from India. Pakistan felt the need to show the difference as they had to show that the differences were too much for Hindus and Muslims to reside together in a unified state. This was a tough task, considering the prolonged history of how they had lived together for so long, and keeping in mind how many cultures and norms of both the countries were similar due to the presence of a unified India for a long time. This led to the policy approaches that were to serve this purpose.
Firstly, legislation was passed in form of the Objectives Resolutions. This served the purpose of showing that this country was formed to provide freedom of religion and religious practices to Muslims, with the implications that such freedom was not provided in a unified India. Ishtiaq Ahmed talks about how it must have been an important consideration for the Prime Minister at that time, Liaquat Ali Khan, to distinguish Pakistan from Congress and secular India. It was declared in the constituent assembly that Islamic norms would be followed while practicing democracy, and hence a basis for an Islamic constitution was formed by the Objectives Resolutions (Ahmed 1).
Secondly, an educational structure was formed that highlighted India as a Hindu state, and where Muslims were highly marginalized and discriminated against. Furthermore, this education system has inculcated a sense of hatred towards India in Pakistanis. This has been a strategic move by the government to legitimize the creation of Pakistan further, by exaggerating the undesirable living conditions that existed in pre-partitioned India. The Two-Nation theory is accepted as a fact in Pakistan today, and it is widely believed that Muhammad Ali Jinnah based his political career on this Two-Nation theory. Many also believe Jinnah was a strong proponent of a Muslim state, and that his struggle throughout his political career and the emergence of Pakistan is a testament to that.
Within this education system, students associate Congress with Hindus, and Muslim League is considered the representative of Muslims in the pre-partition India. Even though Congress had many Muslim members within it ranks, some at the very top of the hierarchy, it is still considered to be a party that was working for the sole interest of the Hindus. Moreover, India is seen as a Hindu state, and is considered to be Hindu dominated. Even though India has more Muslims than Pakistan does, their treatment, or mistreatment, there is also grossly exaggerated. While studying partition, Muslims are painted as the helpless victims who were victimized at the hands of the...