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Different Teaching Methods Essay

2148 words - 9 pages

The world as we know it, we have witnessed profound, unprecedented changes in the physical environment, social environment, population changes, attitudes and values, education (learning to know) and technological factors.

Learning is the act of obtaining new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, morals and abilities and involves amalgamating different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Learning is not obligatory, it is circumstantial and it does not happened all at once, but builds upon and is formed by previous knowledge. Bostrom and Lassen (2002) notes, “every child is born with an innate ability to ...view middle of the document...

Objective theory is based on Skinner’s stimulus- response theory, according to Jonassen (1993), “ learning is viewed as a change in the behavioral disposition of an organism that can be shaped by selective reinforcement. Therefore the goal of teaching is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the expert to the learner. Leidner and Jarvenpaa (1995), note “the four main assumptions of Objective Theory learning and instructions in terms of learning, the first assumption is that there exists a reality that is agreed upon by individuals; second the reality can be represented and transferred to a learner; third the purpose of the mind is to act as a mirror of reality rather than as am interpreter of reality and fourth all learners essentially us the same processes for representing and understanding the world.” The Objective Theory Model postulates that the goal of teaching is to efficiently transmit knowledge from the expert to the learner thus, according to Yanusso (1992), instructors structure reality into abstract or generalized representations that can be transferred and then recalled by students.” Therefore success of learners learning is usually based on the completion of the curriculum and not the extent to which learners actually internalized the content.

Constructivist theory is learning that has roots in both philosophy and psychology, that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and ideas. The significance of constructivism is that learners are actively constructing their own knowledge and meaning from their experience (Fosnot 1996). According to Satish and Munsung (2004), philosophically relies on and stresses subjectivism and relativism, the concept that while reality may exist separate from experience, it can only be known through experience, resulting in a personally unique reality. Constructivism is therefore transferred from the teacher to the learner, which the leaner generates veracity from the experience and obtains personal knowledge. The teacher is responsible for transferring this information to the learner, which the learner creates a reality from experience and personal knowledge. The Constructivist Model demands for learner center instruction- assumes students are to learn better when they are stimulated. This enables them to discover themselves.

Depending on the paradigm the teacher believes which suits his or her teaching beliefs will be shaped appropriately. Instructional designers should always be aware of their epistemological and philosophical assumptions because those assumptions will guide their teaching and evaluation practices. When as a teacher I situate myself on the continuum, I avoid the two extreme ends. I believe that there are times that a more objectivist approach is appropriate and there are other times that a more constructivist is appropriate. It always depends on the context, content, resources, and learners. Learning theories...

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