Diagnosis Of An Infected Patient Essay

1074 words - 5 pages

Diagnosis of an Infected Patient

Infection is the invasion and growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body. A prokaryotic cell is a simple cell that does not have a nucleus. One of the most common types of prokaryotic cells is a bacterium. Bacteria are differentiated by many factors including shape, chemical composition, nutritional requirements, biochemical activities, and sources of energy (Tortora 76). A patient with an infection in the upper respiratory system will need to have a sputum sample sent to the lab for further evaluation to determine the cause in order to accurately treat the infection. While many ...view middle of the document...

Junctions between members of the chain are clearly visible. Spores are not always visible on Gram stain but when apparent they are located centrally, do not distort the bacillary shape, and are clear in appearance. Spores can be stained using specific dyes, such as malachite green, that are absorbed by spores in the presence of heat (Noonan).
Escherichia is a genus of aerobic gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae that form acid and gas on many carbohydrates, such as dextrose and lactose, but not acetone, which include occasional pathogenic forms, including some strains of E. coli which are normally present in the human intestine as well as other forms which typically occur in soil and water (Webster). Escherichia coli is a gram-negative bacilli that rarely varies in shape and size and when stained often resemble safety pins because the ends of some bacilli stain more densely than does the middle; which is a characteristic called bipolar staining which is common in enteric gram-negative bacilli (ASM). Gram negative cells have a thin cell wall layer and will stain red to pink. The staining process is the same as Gram positive, requiring four steps: applying a primary stain, adding a mordant, then rapid decolorization and completing with a counter stain. Applying the alcohol for decolorization dissolves the outer membrane and leaves small holes in the thin peptidoglycan layer through which the crystal violet-iodine diffuse. The gram-negative bacteria is colorless after the decolorization; therefore adding safranin turns the cells pink or red (Tortora 87).
Differing from the bacteria previously discussed, Mycoplasma is the only prokaryote that does not have a cell wall. Mycoplasma belongs to the genus Mycoplasmataceae which contains microscopic pleomorphic gram-negative non-motile bacteria that are mostly parasitic (Webster). Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria that can grow and reproduce outside living hosts. Since they do not have cell walls, they can pass through most bacterial filters. The plasma membrane has a lipid layer, known as sterol, to help protect it from lysis. The Acid-fast stain is used to identify bacteria from the Mycobacterium genus. Typical gram staining is not effective on this organism as they contain high concentrations of mycolic acid, which is a hydrophobic waxy lipid which prevents the uptake of most dyes. Acid-fast bacteria can be stained with carbolfuchsin which uses heat...

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