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Diabetes And Depression Essay

1177 words - 5 pages

Midterm Paper -Medical Illness Associated with Depression
Ardon Cato
Walden University
Social and Behavioral Epidemiology
PUBH 8310-1
Dr.M.Agha
April 14, 2012

Midterm Paper -Medical Illness Associated with Depression
Diabetes and Depression
The association between depression and diabetes has been recognized for many years, but the nature of this relationship remains uncertain, not only is depression one of the worst illnesses known to humankind, it is also implicated in another major chronic disease in humankind-diabetes. The relationship is attributed to a variety of mechanisms but the causal relationship between these illnesses, ...view middle of the document...

The high prevalence of comorbid depression and diabetes, suggests that these two diseases may be related. Depression has been proposed as both a result and precursor to diabetes (Riley, McEntee, Gerson & Dennison, 2009).Emotional distress is mediated by perceived threat of illness, self esteem, self efficiency, coping skills, and social support. Sociodemographic factors, including younger age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, ethnic minority status, chronic stressors ,and negative life events have been identified as predictors of depression among individuals with diabetes (Stansfeld,Head,Fuhrer,Wardle& Cattell,2003).Depression has been associated with hyperglycemia, diabetes related complications and perceived functional limitations of diabetes . Often individuals with depression do not realized they are depressed, and it is easy to attribute the symptoms of depression to diabetes, many people do not like the idea that they may have emotional difficulties; however, good diabetic management is dependent on the development of self knowledge and diabetes education. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2006), treatment of anxiety and depression helps people manage the symptoms of both diseases, thus leading to better medical prognosis for diabetes, as well as a better quality of life.
Depression as a precursor to diabetes
Variations exist in the association in which depression type 2 diabetes, and casual mechanisms for this association remains speculative. Diabetes may develop via the psychosocial effects of depression, including adiposity and negative health behaviors, such as poor diet, physical activity, smoking and medication adherence ,and as a result of biological mechanisms and inflammatory responses ,that contribute to insulin resistance and decreased glucose uptake(Engum,Mybletum,Miathgell,Holemn & Dahl,2005) . Adults who were depressed were 37% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than their non depressed counterparts, and this risk remained significant after controlling for known demographic, and clinical risk factors, anyone who suffers from depression, should consider themselves at risk for diabetes and act accordingly.
According to the Williams, Clouse & Lustman (2006) ,data from four large population studies in the United States and Japan showed that depression significantly increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and the rate was three or four times greater than in the general population . In other cross sectional studies that examined the relationship, found that patients who carried the diagnosis of diabetes had greater risk of increased depression symptoms (Lustman & Clouse 2007). Because the physiologic and behavioral interactions between depression and diabetes are so complex, the diseases may become difficult to control increasing risks of diabetic retinopathy, causing blindness, neuropathy and other complications....

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