Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory
The multi-store model of memory was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968.They said the memory is made up of the sensory Memory Store, the short-term memory store and the long-term memory store. A diagram of the model can be seen below:
If we pay attention
Lost via decay and
It is lost via decay
Info is lost via decay and displacement
From the model we can see the environment makes available a variety of sources of information. The ...view middle of the document...
For example, you are processing the words you read on the screen in your STM. However, if I ask, "What is your telephone number?" your brain immediately calls that from long-term memory and replaces what was previously there. Decay is similar as the information disappears as time passes by as the duration of STM is limited. Chunking can increase the capacity of short-term memory. For example, the letters "b d e" constitute three units of information while the word "bed" represents one unit even though it is composed of the same number of letters. Chunking is a major technique for getting and keeping information in short-term memory; it is also a type of elaboration that will help get information into long-term memory. Peterson and Peterson found in an experiment that 90% of participants recalled trigrams after 3 seconds, and only 10% recalled after 18 seconds. This evidence shows that without rehearsal information in the short term, memory lasts for only 18 seconds. Otherwise the information is lost through decay and displacement.
Rehearsal is a technique that we use to learn something. This transfers information into our long-term memory store. The duration and capacity of LTM are supposed to be unlimited. According to the model, the way of losing information from LTM is forgetting due to decay or interference. This happens when similar memories interfere with each other or when new information interferes with the retrieval of previously learnt information. Evidence to support long term memory was supported by Murdock. Murdock found that if subjects are presented with 20 or more words individually and then asked to recall them immediately in any...