Depression Essay

1753 words - 8 pages

Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
©2012 RIGLD, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases


Depression in patients with chronic hepatitis B: an experience on
individual solution- focused therapy
Jinous Arvand1, Abdollah Shafiabadi2, Mohammad Reza Falsafinejad3, Nosratollah Naderi4
Faculty of Human Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Human Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Human Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, ...view middle of the document...


Hepatitis B is a common infectious diseases
affecting liver. It is a national health problem in
Iran and it is estimated that 2.14% of Iranian
population is affected by HBV infection.
Moreover, hepatitis B is the leading cause of
hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in
Iran (1-3). Hepatitis B may be associated with
depression. This leads to decrease quality of life of
affected patients. A study in Iran showed high
prevalence of psychiatric disorder, particularly
depression and anxiety with frequencies of 30%
and 6%, respectively (4). To improve compliance
Received: 29 March 2012 Accepted: 26 May 2012
Reprint or Correspondence: Jinous Arvand, PhD. Faculty of
Human Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad
University, Tehran, Iran

with treatment, psychotherapy interventions and
are recommended.
Solution– focused therapy, a form of
psychotherapy, may address and alleviate
psychiatric problems and increase quality of life in
these patients. It stresses on the client’s strengths
and resources, aiding the person apply the skills
and strategies that he or she has used effectively in
the past. It focuses on solving problem, instead of
only concentrating the problem. It has high
importance as an introductory and frequently
satisfactory intervention and can be used with
other treatments (5, 6). In this study, the process
and effects of solution-focused therapy on
depression of 2 patients with chronic hepatitis B
have been described.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2012;5(3):166-168

Arvand J. et al 167

Case Presentation
Solution- focused therapy
In the first session, a miracle question was
asked and it focused on pretreatment changes and
exceptions. Clients were asked about the aim of
coming for consultation. In every session, scaling
questions were asked, and also some tasks were
assigned to clients. Therapists took a break before
the end of the session.The sessions were designed
mostly on discussing about constructing and
paying attention to solutions and exceptions.
Clients were asked “Is there anything I forgot to
ask?” In the end of each session, clients were
given experiments and homework assignments. In
the beginning of each session, clients were asked
“So, what is even a little better since the last time
we met?” Also, therapists checked the homework
assignments, and asked about differences, learning
since last time. In the fifth session, the clients
agreed upon to termination.
Case 1
A 28 y/o married woman with chronic hepatitis
B diagnosed from 3 years ago during prenatal tests
presented with symptoms of depression. She had
complaints of hopelessness, insomnia, sadness,
anhedonia, loss of energy, crying and aggression.
Beck depression inventory showed moderate
depression (score of 35). She underwent individual
solution- focused therapy for 5 sessions, each

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