What does research indicate about clinical depression? What are the implications for treatment?
What does research indicate about clinical depression and what are the implications for treatment? The purpose of this paper is to logically provide a review about the biological and situational aspects of depression and the various forms of treatment. I will define what depression is, evaluate who depression affects and why, then proceed with the description of the most widely used methods of treatment, behavioral therapy and prescribed medication.
I What is Depression?
When it is ...view middle of the document...
As many as 36% of patients with another medical disorder will suffer from a major depressive disorder] (Leon, et al., 2003) [ Consistently woman are found to suffer from depression at twice the rate of men.] (Antonuccio, Danton, & DeNelsky, 1995, p. 574) Although there is a lack of updated research to substantiate why woman experience depression more than men , one could speculate that woman are aware and sensitive to how they are viewed in society and what others think of them. Also often unfairly compensated for the same job as a man or not given an equal opportunity. And not to mention advertisements and images of how a woman should look and dress are everywhere] (Weiten & McCainn, 2007, p. 592) “Susan Nolen-Hoeksemal (2001) argues that women experience more depression than men because they are far more likely to be victims of sexual abuse and somewhat more likely to endure poverty, harassment and role constraints.” (Weiten & McCainn, 2007, p. 592)
III General Causes of Depression
Before we can effectively discuss treatment for depressions we must first determine and understand the cause. “Evidence suggests that heredity can create a predisposition to mood disorders. Environmental factors probably determine whether this predisposition is converted into an actual disorder.” (Weiten & McCainn, 2007, p. 593) A person with a family history of depression and growing up in this type of atmosphere may then lead to a predisposition of depression if the person does not recognize and deal with the problems effectively. Factors that contribute to the causes of depression are, “situational variability, individual differences, interactions of attitude, mood and behavior.” (Stravynski & O'Connor, 1995, p. 615) We may also look at the transmission of depressed effect based on a mothers interaction with her child. “investigators have been looking at the possibility that mothers who are depressed transfer their low moods to their infants through their interaction with them” (Jackson & Huang, 2000) Because there are many causes of depression and often times depression is not diagnosed alone. [Patients in other diagnostic categories, such as anxiety, alcoholism, schizophrenia and a variety of personality disorders may also be diagnosed with depression] (Stravynski & O'Connor, 1995, p. 609) The key is to understand and acknowledge possible underlying and situational causes. By doing so will help to determine an individual treatment plan best suited for the individuals treatment and recovery.
IV Biological roles in depression
there is an abundance of scientific research that over time that has lead scientists to believe that there are biological causes of depression. A few anatomical systems have been researched, hypothesized, discussed and brought attention to the biology of depression.
V The Seretonergic System
The Seretonergic “system is thought to control many aspects of mood.” (Rahola, 2001)...