January 12, 2014
Depression is defined as a low, sad state in which life seems dark with overwhelming challenges (Comer, 2012). Mania is considered the opposite of depression as it results in feeling of euphoria and frenzied energy; these two definitions combined are classified as bipolar disorder (Comer, 2012). Unipolar depression is when an individual suffers from depression that lacks bouts of mania (Comer, 2012).
Depression, and or symptoms of depression, can affect everyone during one or more stages of life. Some individuals experience times in their lives when they consider themselves to be ...view middle of the document...
Research suggests that there has been abnormal function in the proteins that transport ions to the membrane in the brains of individuals suffering from depressive disorders (Comer, 2012). Scientist have further noted that abnormalities have been found in the basal ganglia and cerebellum of individuals diagnosed with depressive disorders (Comer, 2012). Genetic factors seem to play a role in the inheritance of depression and bipolar disorder. Identical twins have a 40 percent possibility of suffering from the same mood disorder, while other siblings and relatives have a 5 to 10 percent chance of developing the same disorder (Comer, 2012). In some cases, environment alone is enough to trigger bouts of depression, such as, loss of employment, financial distress, breakups and divorce, death of a spouse, child, or family member, or a traumatic event such as war, or assault (POS, 2009).
The symptoms of unipolar depression and depression affect the following 5 areas of functioning: emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical (Bipolar depression vs. Unipolar depression, 2014). Symptoms of depression and bipolar disorder are as follows:
* Extreme sadness
* Lack or interest or motivation in activities that were previously enjoyed
* Low energy
* Lack of focus
* Withdrawal and isolation from friends and family
* Lack of sleep
* Feelings of guilt and shame
* Suicidal thoughts
* Extreme euphoria (mania)
* Fast speech (mania)
* Impulsive behavior (mania)
* Hyper sexuality and promiscuity (mania)
* Drug abuse (Bipolar Depression vs. Unipolar Depression, 2014).
Treatment is not always necessary in every case where depression is present, however, when needed, there are several options that can benefit an individual suffering from depression and bipolar disorder. ECT therapy is a controversial form of treatment that sends electrical currents through the brain that produce a...