Definition of Civilization
When people in the community live peacefully, the level of development increases tremendously thereby civilization sets in. Before civilization came into existence, the early people lived off the land and were nomadic hunter-gatherers. With time, these hunters and groups of foragers started to settle down. There were strains on the nomadic people in that they had to find reliable sources of food for the animals that were large to feed. The exact meaning of “civilization” sometimes becomes hard to define since it can be ambiguous. It is easier for civilization to be described than it can be defined.
According to Mazlish (5), ...view middle of the document...
They stated that the white people were more civilized than other races, and these other races needed to have teachings that taught these races on how to be civilized (Rifkin 75).
Humankind settled in permanent communities because of a single decisive factor that was agriculture. In 6500 BC, farming developed in Middle East forcing people living as family units to settle and not move continually in search of food. Food was available always, and the people were assured of reliable annual supply since they had control in the production of food. The availability of food changed the lives of people completely, and many settled in fertile river valleys (Redner 24). They devised means in that these settlers started to learn how to use the water supply in terms of irrigating the land. Once they settled in one place, it was possible for these settlers to domesticate animals that would complement in other sources of food as well as provide clothing.
According to Redner (25), farming made settlement possible by facilitating the building of cities in addition to helping as a reliable food supply. It was a revolutionary discovery at that time because it opened the door for civilization. Since the food was plenty, many people could be fed leading to the population increasing. A growing number of people led to the construction of more complex social structures. The availability of food was a surplus and could support the other workers who were not farmers. It is evident that the civilization process was achieved first along rivers that provided water supply for the irrigation of land. Communities started to learn how to take advantage of the rainy seasons.
Mathematics emerged as a science that enabled people have the knowledge of studying the movement of the planets, sun, and the moon. The acquiring of this knowledge helped these people to calculate seasons (Elias et al. 45). They created early calendars that made it possible for these people to calculate how each growing season arrives. In addition, they learnt how to measure amounts mostly the grains or seeds. In the later stage, they learnt the measure of value that served as a commodity and money exchange means. There was also the emergence of record keeping due the introduction of measurement, and it eventually led to writing.
The earliest civilizations employed the picture-writing technology where the pictures represented both sound and the objects. They included Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and the Indus Valley among others. Each new civilization rose to new heights by building a legacy that was derived from the predecessors. The ancient civilizations laid the foundation for other modern Western civilizations that were initially fostered in Europe before it was finally spread to America. Civilization was spread in the Mediterranean Sea by the Athens and later by Rome. The modern Western civilization is the one that is available in the present times, and it reaches all corners of this world....