This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Defiance Campaign Essay

1293 words - 6 pages

Defiance Campaign 1952
The post-1948 period saw the African National Congress (ANC) abandoning its traditional reliance on tactics of moderation such as petitions and deputations. In December 1949, with the support of the ANC Youth League, a new leadership came to power in the ANC. Walter Sisulu was elected secretary-general and a number of Youth Leaguers were elected to the national executive, including Oliver Tambo , Sisulu's successor. The period 1950 -1952 began with a commitment to militant African nationalism and mass action and to tactics of boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. The period culminated in the Defiance Campaign, the largest scale non-violent resistance ever seen in ...view middle of the document...

The majority of Black adults and school children boycotted many of the festivities.
On that day mass rallies were held in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Port Elizabeth, Durban, East London and Cape Town as well as some rural areas. Dr. J.S. Moroka was the main speaker at the Johannesburg rally chaired by Dr. Dadoo. In Port Elizabeth Prof. Z.K Matthews spoke about militant African nationalism and self-reliance. He said, "only the African people themselves will ever rid themselves of political subjugation, economic exploitation and social degradation".
June 26 1952: Defiance Campaign launched
After the successes of 6 April the date for the start of the Defiance Campaign was set for 26 June 1952. A "Day of the Volunteers" on Sunday 22 June, preceded the opening of the campaign. Volunteers signed the following pledge:
I, the undersigned, Volunteer of the National Volunteer Corps, do hereby solemnly pledge and bind myself to serve my country and my people in accordance with the directives of the National Volunteer Corps and to participate fully and without reservations to the best of my ability in the Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws. I shall obey the orders of my leader under whom I shall be placed and strictly abide by the rules and regulations of the National Volunteer Corps framed from time to time. It shall be my duty to keep myself physically, mentally and morally fit."
The first group of volunteers including Nelson Mandela, Yusuf Dadoo, Moses Kotane, J.B. Marks, David Bopape and Walter Sisulu defied apartheid laws in Johannesburg and other major city centres. The defiers who began the campaign did so with a sense that history was being made. For the first time Africans and Indians, with a few whites and coloureds were engaging in joint political action under a common leadership. A national action committee, whose key members were Sisulu and Ismail 'Maulvi' Cachalia, and a national volunteer board, with Mandela as the volunteer-in-chief, conducted the campaign.
Groups of volunteers went into action, small in numbers but high in spirits. During the campaign, acts of defiance were accompanied by freedom songs and the thumbs-up sign (introduced by the Cape ANC in 1949 as a sign of unity), cries of "Afrika!" and "Mayibuye!" and cheers from supporting onlookers. 52 Africans and Indians, including Walter Sisulu, Nelson Mandela and Ismail Cachalia, marched into Boksburg location near Johannesburg without permits. All were arrested. Mandela and Cachalia were present only as observers since they planned to avoid arrest. However, that evening they were among a group of protestors who were arrested in Johannesburg when they left a hall after curfew. In Port Elizabeth, 30 people entered a railway station through the "Europeans Only" entrance and were arrested. Others were arrested for entering the European sections of the post offices, sitting on benches marked for whites, or...

Other Papers Like Defiance Campaign

Black and White Essay

683 words - 3 pages entrance into the flagship University of Mississippi was an unthinkable act of defiance against the system of white exclusion. The viewpoint of racist central protagonist dominated the image of the Ole Miss integration struggle. Their hardcore views of maintaining a mythical “southern way of life” were the popular sentiment among the state’s residents. These views were validated by the public rejection of black equality by political figures

Things Fall Apart and Whale Rider Essay

965 words - 4 pages . This repression of women, sparking the 1952 Defiance Campaign in Africa, is made apparent in Ibo language where a man with no esteem is termed with the insult “agbala”, meaning woman. This is reiterated in the character of Okonkwo where he associates women with smaller crops “like coco-yams” whereas “Yam… was a man’s crop”, being a figurative representation of men occupying a superior position in Ibo society. However, Achebe conveys the

Mandela and Palestine

891 words - 4 pages which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.? Today the world, black and white, recognize that Apartheid has no future. In South Africa it has been ended by our own decisive mass action in order to build peace and security. That mass campaign of defiance and other actions could only culminate

How Far Do You Agree That the Most Important Reason for Wolsey’s Fall from Power Was His Failure to Gain a Divorce for Henry Viii?

957 words - 4 pages allowed factions to denounce Wolsey to Henry with increasing effectiveness leading to the fall of Wolsey. Wolsey came from a humble background, being the son of a butcher, and rose to prominence using his natural intelligence and nous. As mentioned before, Wolsey was (generally) an egalitarian - shown through his creation of proportional taxation in the subsidy and his campaign against enclosure. These factors and his low birth meant that he fell out

Nelson Mandela

1636 words - 7 pages Action. In 1952 he was chosen at the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance Campaign with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy. This campaign of civil disobedience against six unjust laws was a joint programme between the ANC and the South African Indian Congress. He and 19 others were charged under the Suppression of Communism Act for their part in the campaign and sentenced to nine months hard labour, suspended for two years. A two-year

Nelson Mandela

1393 words - 6 pages -based policy, the Programme of Action in 1949. In 1952 he was chosen at the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance Campaign with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy. This campaign of civil disobedience against six unjust laws was a joint programme between the ANC and the South African Indian Congress. He and 19 others were charged under the Suppression of Communism Act for their part in the campaign and sentenced to nine months hard labour, suspended

How Important Was The Role Of African Americans Themselves In Achieving Political And Civil Equality For African Americans In The USA Between 1945 And 1965?

3568 words - 15 pages unconstitutional, gave the platform for other campaigns to integrate schools. This in turn made many black Americans ready to assert their independence and campaign for their human rights, they wanted an end to segregation first.Without the reaction of whites to some stand of defiance by blacks then many cases would have gone unrecognised, Rosa Parks, for example, had refused to give up her seat for white people before on the bus, however the time that

Leadership - Nelson Mandela

5397 words - 22 pages elected as the President of the ANCYL. Together with the ANC, on 26 June 1952, the ANCYL adopted a new campaign named the Defiance of Unjust Laws Campaign. This campaign formed or caused the mergence of the ANCYL and the ANC and thus Mandela was soon elected President of the Transvaal division of the ANC. Through the emergence of a new leader, being Mandela, actions were taken against Mandela and on 30 July 1952 Mandela was arrested for violating the

Ireland Michael Collins

1969 words - 8 pages military defectors who placed their faith in Collins. This was the first step in the creation of Collins guerrilla warfare campaign as intelligence could be acquired without the British knowing the information was in the IRB’s possession. With the intelligence received he was able to warn leading members of the organisation that they were at risk of arrest yet leading members including de Valera and other significant members ignored the warning and

The Long Awaited End to Apartheid

2867 words - 12 pages Defiance Campaign, in which it called on people to break discriminatory laws and turn themselves in. “More than 8,000 trained volunteers went to jail for defying unjust laws that had grown worse since the National Party came to power in 1948. Volunteers were jailed for failing to carry passes, violating the curfew on Africans, and entering locations and public facilities designated for one race only” (Hadfield). The reasoning behind such a campaign

To What Extent Were The Bombs Dropped On Hiroshima And Nagasaki Necessary To End World War II? Includes Bibliography And Footnotes (If You Care To Message Me For Them)

1677 words - 7 pages pact with Japan and join the western allies. The Americans had recently captured Okinawa making air raids on Japan easier. Haunted by the spectre of allied invasion suggestions arose that it was now time to consider negotiations. The navy had admitted in October 1944 that it no longer had enough strength to launch an offensive, in December the U.S had completed the Leyte campaigning in the Philippines - a campaign which the Japanese war minister had

Related Essays

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Essay

737 words - 3 pages the members of the ANC formed a mass movement deriving its strength and motivation from the unlettered millions of working people in the towns and countryside, the peasants in the rural areas, and the professionals. As a result of this movement they came together to found the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in September 1944. Mandela was elected National Volunteer-in-Chief when the ANC launched its Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust

Suicidal Attacks Essay

630 words - 3 pages served as a weapon of defiance and as a symbolic tool to prove the supremacy of the purity of Muslims over the decadence of their rivals. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, where for the first time an unprecedented number of suicide bombers were used in four simultaneous suicide missions, al Qaeda and others have been leading a global suicide campaign. Through May 2004, al Qaeda and its affiliates had carried out about 80 suicide attacks by

Leaders Of Change Essay

1270 words - 6 pages fasting a form of passive resistance as a means of protest. (Gandhi, 2014). His fasting resulted in intense reaction from his followers which in turn put immense pressure on the British and the Hindu community and government resulting in fast reforms. In protest to the British tax on salt which tremendously affected the poor Gandhi empowered his philosophy of Satyagraha. He led a campaign of civil disobedience that was active for nearly a decade

The Bench Essay

744 words - 3 pages Essay on Richard Rive's "The Bench" Richard Rive was born in District Six in Cape Town. " The Bench" is taken from his short story collection, "Advance, Retreat " influenced by events during the Defiance of Unjust Laws Campaign from 1952 to 1953. The story starts with an exert from a speech that is held in Cape Town, South Africa. It is clearly part of a demonstration against the apartheid system. A large black man with a rolling