Data Analysis

1176 words - 5 pages

What is Business Research?

‘Research’ has been defined in a number of ways, depending upon peculiar interests and demands of the researcher, his professional training and skills and, of course, the nature of the problem being examined or analysed. In this sense, there is no one standard definition of research (same is true of the dictionaries defining research). Similarly, there is no one way of doing research. Research can be done in numerous ways, from chronological to descriptive to analytical, from qualitative to quantitative, from explanatory to predictive, from exploratory to evaluative (cost - benefit analysis) to instrumental and action-oriented, to theoretical to applied ...view middle of the document...

This process of inquiry that tests against reality in a disciplined manner, with each step in the process quite explicit and integral, is described as the ‘scientific’ method, or, more specifically, the ‘empirical method’ (after the empiricists).


Data are facts, figures, enumerations and other materials, past and present, serving as basis for study and analysis; they are raw material for analysis; provide basis for testing hypothesis, developing scales and tables

Data help researchers draw inferences on specific issues/ problems

Quality of Findings depend on relevance, adequacy and reliability of data

Types of Data (not in Statistical sense)

1. Personal data (individual as a source)

 Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics
 Behaviour variables
 Attitude, behaviour, opinions
 Awareness, preferences, knowledge
 Practices, intensions

2. Organizational data (organizational sources)
 Archives
 Manuscript library
 Museums
 3 Territorial data
 Economic structure, occupation pattern


Secondary data

 How to Scrutinize
 Published & unpublished
 Methods where used
A. Meta analysis
B. Historical method
C. Content analysis
D. Informetrics
E. Use studies

Primary Data

A. Records and relics
B. Observation
C. Experimentation
D. Simulation
E. Ask people orally
F. Ask people in writing
G. Panel study
H. Projective techniques
I. Sociometry
J. Case study
• Interview / Depth interview / schedule
• Mail Survey / questionnaire
• Mechanical devices

How to collect data?

I. Use existing data
Already collected by someone else for different / general purpose (paper method) i.e,

Secondary data

 Published or unpublished
 Retrospective panel study
 Letters
 Unpublished biographic / autobiographics
 Library statistics
 Raw data like invoices / log data for expenditure & use of data bases
 Published directories for (i) study funding for research activities (ii) statistics about publishing industry
 Published reports of UN, world bank, IMF, WHO, ILO etc.

Use Secondary data
 As supplementary data
 For reference purpose
 As bench marks (for comparison)
 Rarely as sole / main source


 Quick
 Cheap
 Wide coverage (space and time)
 Broad database leading to generalizations
 Cross check Primary data


 Suitability
 Up-to – dateness
 Accuracy
 Availability and accessibility

Scrutinize Secondary data for

1. Reliability
 Who collected (possible bias)
 From what sources
 Which methods
 What time
 What accuracy

2. Suitability
 Definition of terms
 Units of measurements
 Objective, scope and nature of survey
3. Adequacy
 Level of accuracy
 Narrower or wider than present study
 Completeness in terms of methodology and sampling design

Types of Secondary...

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