Daiwa Bank Operational Management Case Essay

4952 words - 20 pages

BAB 1
PENDAHULUAN

1.1 Latar Belakang

Bank adalah lembaga keuangan yang sangat berperan penting dalam perkembangan ekonomi terutama sejak awal abad ke 19 dan telah mengalami transformasi dan pendalaman fungsi dari hanya menjadi perantara keuangan dengan produk sederhana seperti deposito dan pinjaman sehingga menjadi sangat kompleks dan bervariasi antara lain dari segi skala, ukuran, produk, teknologi, konsentrasi jenis bank dan pangsa pasar. Dengan kompleksitas usaha dan produk yang terus meningkat tersebut, bank menghadapi banyak tantangan dan permasalahan yang harus dikelola dengan baik agar dapat bertahan dan terus berkembang sejalan dengan tujuan perusahaan dan pertumbuhan ...view middle of the document...

Di samping itu, ada unsur-unsur perubahan yang dapat menjadi pemicu masalah operasional, antara lain otomatisasi, ketergantungan pada teknologi, outsorcing, terorisme, peningkatkan globalisasi, insentif dan perdagangan aktif, peningkatan jumlah dan volume transaksi serta peningkatan litigasi hokum.
Contoh yang sering disebutkan untuk masalah operasional perbankan adalah kasus yang terjadi pada Barings Brothers and Co. Ltd, London, yang mengalami kebangkrutan setelah rugi trading sebesar GBP 827 juta. Akar masalah kasus ini adalah karena kegagalan proses dan prosedur pengendalian internal. Seorang trader di Singapore yang bekerja di Singapore Futures Exchange berhasil menyembunyikan kerugian tersebut selama lebih dari dua tahun. Akar masalah ini adalah karena trader ini dapat bertindak selaku front office dan back office sehingga dapat melakukan otorisasi terhadap transaksi yang dibuatnya sendiri/ tidak adanya segregation of duties.
Contoh lainnya adalah ketika UBS Warburg, sebuah bank di Swiss, pada akhir November 2001, mengalami kerugian sebesar USD 50 juta dikarenakan salah seorang staffnya salah menjual 610,000 lot saham perusahaan Densu untuk harga sebesar JPY 16 per satuan, padahal seharusnya melakukan penjualan 16 lot saham dengan harga JPY 610,000 per satuan. Dalam hal ini, alert warning yang terdapat pada sistem komputer menjadi salah satu topik perdebatan.

1.2 Tujuan dan Manfaat Penulisan

Berdasarkan penjelasan yang telah dipaparkan di atas, menjadi penting untuk menganalisa bagaimana sebuah masalah operasional terjadi dan apa akibatnya terhadap bank tersebut secara khusus dan kepada regulator serta bahkan sistem perbankan secara keseluruhan. Lebih lanjut lagi, kita dapat melihat apa sebenarnya titik tolak masalah yang terjadi dan apa yang telah dilakukan untuk mengatasinya. Untuk learning point, tentunya tindakan pencegahan apa yang perlu diimplikasikan agar hal serupa tidak terjadi di masa mendatang dan tentunya harus dapat dikembangkan untuk mengantisipasi persoalan-persoalan lain yang mungkin terjadi terkait masalah operasional.

1.3 Ruang Lingkup dan Batasan Masalah

Ruang lingkup penulisan laporan ini adalah masalah operasional yang pernah terjadi di salah satu bank dan memberikan dampak yang cukup serius tidak hanya kepada bank tersebut, namun juga kepada dunia perbankan internasional, termasuk regulator dan lembaga keuangan lainnya.
Kasus yang diambil adalah kasus pada tahun 1995 yang menimpa sebuah bank Jepang, Daiwa Bank, Ltd. (sekarang bernama Resona Bank, Ltd.) yang membuka cabang di United States, sehingga melibatkan pemerintahan dua negara dan dampak yang ditimbulkan tidak hanya berupa materi namun juga reputasi dan hal-hal lainnya yang bersifat non materi.
Uraian dan analisa kasus adalah sebatas satu kejadian tersebut, dengan mengulas latar belakang dan detail kejadian serta penyelesaian kasus dan dampak yang diakibatkan kasus tersebut kepada pihak-pihak terkait seperti bank itu sendiri, bank...

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