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D1: Evaluate How Nature And Nurture May Affect The Physical, Intellectual, Emotional And Social Development Of Two Stages Of The Development Of An Individual

1201 words - 5 pages

The nature and nurture debate has been greatest debate in psychology over the centuries. Biologists will support the nature side of the debate while the environmentalist/behaviourists will support the nurture side of the debate. The two stages of development of an individual that will be discussed in this spread are adults and children.
At the very beginning of development, infants are believed to inherit the capacity to learn how to walk, learn a language(s) and mimic behaviour. From a nature perspective, this is an advantage for survival because their interaction helps them to inform an adult, especially parents, their needs for comfort, hunger, warmth etc. although, the type of ...view middle of the document...

For example, attending psychology forums, tutored by an expert, face fears and challenges etc. It would not be effective if they rely on genetic structure alone because an experience offers far more opportunities and explanations of the world.
Children’s physical trait such as eye colour, curly/straight hair, height and weight are determined by genes. Children’s temperament includes how children respond to emotional situations, their own impulses seem to be caused by genes as well and researchers have found genetic basis to support this. Petrill and Wilkerson noted that slow or quick to learn instructions in day-to-day activities have genetic basis as well. Children’s ability to learn and speak a language (intellectual development) can be influence by their genetic process. The sounds and signs they see around them are particularly interesting for them which stimulate their speaking process. As they age, these symbols make more sense and they can use it in their own situations. This application of symbols is said to be at the Formal Operational stage of Piaget’s development theory. In this stage, the person is capable of abstract reasoning, critical thinking and problem-solving. Also, they are more capable of thinking morally, as well as putting different concepts as one e.g. theory of conservation.
But, nurture debate argues that to fully develop a child’s temperament, abilities and skills, the nurturing part must be considered as it is just as important. For example, a child will learn a language at home, however the amount of interaction in school is far more complex than at home; plus they get to play with children at their age, which is a different kind of interaction from any adults. In other words, social development cannot be provided by genes or nature alone, but needs something that will trigger the stimuli and build up neural connections in the brain. Similarly, adults are in need of interaction too, however, remember that adults interact in a more complex and moral manner than children, thus in need of a different kind of interaction.
In terms of children’s emotional development, the nature debate would suggest that it is a matter of maturation. The maturation theory of life stages stated that children as young as three years old is in the sensorimotor stage, from 2-8 is at the per-operational stage, 8-12 is at the concrete operational stage and, 12 and beyond is at the formal...

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