Define Cyber Security.
Computer security is also known as cyber security or IT security which refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. It is an information security as applied to computers and computer networks. The field covers all the processes and mechanisms by which computer-based equipment, information and services are protected from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. Computer security also includes protection from unplanned events and natural disasters.
Most computer security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. A password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or ...view middle of the document...
Chain of trust techniques can be used to attempt to ensure that all software loaded has been certified as authentic by the system's designers.
Cryptographic techniques can be used to defend data in transit between systems, reducing the probability that data exchanged between systems can be intercepted or modified.
Firewalls can provide some protection from online intrusion.
A microkernel is a carefully crafted, deliberately small corpus of software that underlies the operating system per se and is used solely to provide very low-level, very precisely defined primitives upon which an operating system can be developed. A simple example with considerable didactic value is the early '90s GEMSOS (Gemini Computers), which provided extremely low-level primitives, such as "segment" management, atop which an operating system could be built. The theory (in the case of "segments") was that—rather than have the operating system itself worry about mandatory access separation by means of military-style labelling—it is safer if a low-level, independently scrutinized module can be charged solely with the management of individually labelled segments, be they memory "segments" or file system "segments" or executable text "segments." If software below the visibility of the operating system is (as in this case) charged with labelling, there is no theoretically viable means for a clever hacker to subvert the labelling scheme, since the operating system per se does not provide mechanisms for interfering with labelling: the operating system is, essentially, a client (an "application," arguably) atop the microkernel and, as such, subject to its restrictions.
Endpoint security software helps networks to prevent data theft and virus infection through portable storage devices, such as USB drives.
Confidentiality is the nondisclosure of information except to another authorized person.
Data integrity is the accuracy and consistency of stored data, indicated by an absence of any alteration in data between two updates of a data record.