Derrick L. Jackson
Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice
CRJS410 - 1304A - 01
Professor: Samantha Carlo
Unit 1 Individual Project 1
July 25, 2013
Within this paper a report is written for the California Chief Attorney in efforts to support a presentation to the County Commission. Key components of victimology, history of victimology, theories, and differences between criminology and victimology are discussed. The flagstaff of safe houses for abused women and children, along with our nation’s first rape crises center are highlighted. The contribution from our history’s civil rights movement and how it has played a part in the U.S. laws are explained, along with children’s rights ...view middle of the document...
Criminology embraces the scientific study of crimes, criminals, criminal laws and the justice system, societal reactions, and crime victims (Victimology, 2013). Victimologists ask more of the question of why a person, a household, or businesses are targeted, while others are not. Victimologists use patterns and trends to develop victimization prevention strategies and risk-reduction tactics. Criminologists apply their findings to devise crime prevention strategies. Both criminologists and victimologist's study how the criminal justice system actually works versus how it is supposed to work (Perspectives, 2013).
Most Victimologist come from an academic or professional background such as sociology, law, psychiatry, psychology, and from social work. The foundation of victimology comes from well known theorist from the past such as Mendelssohn’s. Mendelssohn’s Theory of Victimization of 1963 is the study of strong interpersonal relationship between the offender and the victim. Where other theorist’s such as Von Hentig studied victims by examining various risk factors. Theorist Schafer studied the functional responsibility, and the classified victims on a basis of responsibility instead of risk factors. Wolfgang’s Study on Homicide (which was the first major study of victim precipitation) studied victims and offenders as separate entities and as mutual participants in homicides. Probably the most well known theorist is Karmen. Karmen’s Theory of Victimology discusses the development of victimology and highlights Victimologists views, and the dynamics of the victim’s role in society from a multidisciplinary perspective (Perspectives, 2013).
The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice was a milestone achievement for victims due to the lobby to criminologist to become more active and aware. This coupled with the rise of victim’s rights movement brought mass attention the matter. In the Late 1960s, victims began serving within various victim assistance programs such as the National Crime Survey, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), and in 1976 the formation of the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) was created. During the early to mid 1980s, victims’ organization used media to increase public awareness, and in 1982, President Reagan appointed Task Force on Victims of Crime. This type of movement kept its momentum when congress passed the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) in 1984, establishing the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and the Crime Victims Fund, in which both of them provide funding to assist with victim services.
In 1971 a refuge in Chiswick, London (UK) established the first official safe house for women and children. This act sparked a movement across the world by organizations starting similar safe houses. Before the 1971 safe houses were informal, and usually consisted of people opening their homes to women and children needing to escape dangerous situations. Back in this era of...